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[其它] 《孙子兵法》翻译

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飘墨劲旅

发表于 2020-11-30 20:09:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
【始计篇】

孙子曰:兵者,国之大事,死生之地,存亡之道,不可不察也。

故经之以五事,校之以计,而索其情:一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰将、五曰法。道者,令民与上同意也,故可以与之死,可以与之生,而不畏危。天者,阴阳,寒暑、时制也。地者,远近、险易、广狭、死生也。将者,智、信、仁、勇、严也。法者,曲制、官道、主用也。凡此五者,将莫不闻,知之者胜,不知者不胜。故校之以计,而索其情,曰:主孰有道?将孰有能?天地孰得?法令孰行?兵众孰强?士卒孰练?赏罚孰明?吾以此知胜负矣。

将听吾计,用之必胜,留之;将不听吾计,用之必败,去之。计利以听,乃为之势,以佐其外。势者,因利而制权也。

兵者,诡道也。故能而示之不能,用而示之不用,近而示之远,远而示之近;利而诱之,乱而取之,实而备之,强而避之,怒而挠之,卑而骄之,佚而劳之,亲而离之。攻其无备,出其不意。此兵家之胜,不可先传也。

夫未战而庙算胜者,得算多也;未战而庙算不胜者,得算少也。多算胜,少算不胜,而况于无算乎?吾以此观之,胜负见矣。




孙子曰:兵者,国之大事,死生之地,存亡之道,不可不察也。
孙子说:战争是一个国家的头等大事,关系到军民的生死,国家的存亡,是不能不慎重周密地观察、分析、研究的。
Sun Tzu said: wars, the country's major events, the place of death and life, the way of survival and death, can not be ignored.

故经之以五事,校之以计,而索其情:一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰将,五曰法。
因此,必须通过敌我双方五个方面的情况进行分析和比较,得到详情,来预测战争胜负的可能性。一是道,二是天,三是地,四是将,五是法。"
Therefore, it is necessary to analyze and compare the situation of the enemy and our two sides in five aspects and get details to predict the possibility of winning or losing the war. The first is Tao, the second is times, the third is region, the fourth is general, and the fifth is law.

道者,令民与上同意,可与之死,可与之生,而不危也;
道,指君主和民众目标相同,意志统一,可以同生共死,而不会惧怕危险。
Tao means that the monarch and the people have the same goal, the same will, and can live and die together without fear of danger.

天者,阴阳、寒暑、时制也;
天,指昼夜、阴晴、寒暑、四季更替。
Times refers to day and night, cloudy and sunny, cold and summer, and the change of seasons.

地者,远近、险易、广狭、死生也;
地,指地势的高低,路程的远近,地势的险要、平坦与否,战场的广阔、狭窄,是生地还是死地等地理条件。
Region refers to the height of the terrain, the distance of the journey, the precipitous and flat terrain, the vast and narrow battlefield, and the geographical conditions of the living or the dead.

将者,智、信、仁、勇、严也;
将,指将领足智多谋,赏罚有信,对部下真心关爱,勇敢果断,军纪严明。
Generals are resourceful, honest in rewards and punishments, sincere in love with their subordinates, brave and decisive, and strict in military discipline.

法者,曲制、官道、主用也。
法,指组织结构,责权划分,人员编制,管理制度,资源保障,物资调配。
Law refers to organizational structure, division of responsibilities and rights, staffing, management system, resource guarantee and material allocation.

凡此五者,将莫不闻,知之者胜,不知之者不胜。
对这五个方面,将领都不能不做深刻了解。了解就能胜利,否则就不能胜利。
The generals must have a deep understanding of all five aspects. He get understanding for victory, otherwise he can't win.

故校之以计,而索其情,曰:
主孰有道?
将孰有能?
天地孰得?
法令孰行?
兵众孰强?
士卒孰练?
赏罚孰明?
吾以此知胜负矣。

所以要比较各种条件,分析双方的情形,就是说:
哪一方的君主更加贤明?
哪一方的将帅更有才能?
哪一方占得了天时地利?
哪一方的法令得到执行?
哪一方的军队实力强盛?
哪一方的士卒训练有素?
哪一方的赏罚更加严明?
我根据这些就可以预知胜负了。
So we need to compare various conditions and analyze the situation of both sides,that:
Which monarch is more wise?
Which general is more talented?
Which side has the advantage of time and place?
Which party's laws are implemented?
Which side has a strong army?
Which side of the taxi is well-trained?
Which side of the punishment is more severe?
Based on this, I can predict the outcome.

将听吾计,用之必胜,留之;将不听吾计,用之必败,去之。
愿意听从我的计谋,(您)作战必定取得胜利,我就会留下;
不愿听从我的计谋,(您)作战必定遭到失败,我也会离去。
If you are willing to follow my plan, I will stay and work for you win the battle.
If you disagree my plan, I will leave, and you will lose the battle.

计利以听,乃为之势,以佐其外。
听取有利的计谋,制造有利的局势,做好战争的准备。
Listen to favorable strategies, create favorable situations and prepare for war.

势者,因利而制权也。
势就是利用条件掌握主动
Potential is to use conditions to master initiative.

兵者,诡道也。
战争是诡诈的行为。
War is a deceitful act.

故能而示之不能,用而示之不用,近而示之远,远而示之近。
所以有能力却装作没能力,有作用却装作没作用;在近处却装作在远处,在远处却装作在近处
So he who has power pretends to have no power, he who has effect pretends to have no effect; he who is near pretends to be far away, but he who is far pretends to be near


利而诱之,乱而取之,
敌人贪利,要用先小利来引诱它,再伺机攻击它;
对于处在混乱状态的敌人,要抓住时机攻取它;
1. When the enemy is greedy for profit, (we) must lure him with a small profit first, and then wait for an opportunity to attack him;
2. For the enemy in chaos, we should seize the opportunity to attack it;

实而备之,强而避之,
对于实力雄厚的敌人,则需严加防备;
对于兵强卒锐的敌人,当避其锋芒;
1. For the strong enemy, we need to take strict precautions;
2. For the enemy with strong and sharp troops, we should avoid their sharp points;

怒而挠之,卑而骄之,
对于易怒的敌人,就通过挑逗的方式去激怒他,使他丧失理智;
对于轻视我方的敌人,应设法使其更加骄傲自大
1. For the irritable enemy, he is provoked by provocation to make him lose his mind;
2. We should try to make our enemies more arrogant

佚而劳之,亲而离之,
对于经过充分休整的敌人,要设法使之疲劳;
对于内部团结的敌人,则要设计离间、分化他们。
1. We should try to make the enemy tired after a full rest;
2. For the enemies of internal unity, we should design separations and divide them.

利而诱之,乱而取之,实而备之,强而避之,怒而挠之,卑而骄之,佚而劳之,亲而离之。

诡道十二法的前四种,是隐蔽自己的方法,后八种是利用敌人的方法,这些都是作战中利用诡道的原则。
在敌人贪利、混乱、失去理智的时候,要懂得抓住时机,乘虚而入;对于强大的敌人,就要加强防备,避开他们的优势,千方百计使他们骄傲、懈怠,并让他们焦躁、疲惫,从而变优势为劣势,以利我军行动
The first four of the twelve methods of deception are the methods of concealing oneself, and the last eight are the methods of using the enemy. These are the principles of using deception in combat.

When the enemy is greedy for profit, confused and irrational, he should grasp the opportunity and take advantage of the situation to enter; for a strong enemy, he should strengthen his defense, avoid their advantages, make them proud and slack, and make them anxious and tired, so as to turn their advantages into disadvantages, so as to facilitate our army's action.

攻其无备,出其不意。
在敌人物质上或思想上没有做好准备的时候发动进攻
To launch an attack when the enemy is not prepared in material or ideological terms


此兵家之胜,不可先传也。
这是战争胜利的不二法门,没有比它重要的。
To launch an attack when the enemy is not prepared physically or ideologically is the only way to win the war and nothing is more important else.

夫未战而庙算胜者,得算多也;未战而庙算不胜者,得算少也。
在未战之前,经过周密的分析、比较、谋划,如果结论是我方占据的有利条件多,胜利的把握就相对大;
或者如果结论是我方占据的有利条件少,胜利的把握就相对小。
Before the war, through careful analysis, comparison and planning, if the conclusion is that we have more favorable conditions, the victory will be relatively large;Or if the conclusion is that we have less favorable conditions, the victory is relatively small.

多算胜少算,而况于无算乎!
统计分析计算得越详细胜面越大,更不用说那些连想都没想过就上战场的愣头青。
The more detailed the statistical analysis and calculation, the larger the victory, not to mention those who didn't even think about going to the battlefield.

吾以此观之,胜负见矣。
我也是按照上述的逻辑,来判断胜负。
I also judge the outcome according to the above logic.
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飘墨劲旅

 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:13:58 | 显示全部楼层
第二篇 作战

孙子曰:凡用兵之法,驰车千驷,革车千乘,带甲十万,千里馈粮,则内外之费,宾客之用,胶漆之材,车甲之奉,日费千金,然后十万之师举矣。其用战也,胜久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,久暴师则国用不足。

夫钝兵挫锐、屈力殚货,则诸侯乘其弊而起,虽有智者,不能善其后矣。故兵闻拙速,未睹巧之久也。夫兵久而国利者,未之有也。故不尽知用兵之害者,则不能尽知用兵之利也。

善用兵者,役不再籍,粮不三载;取用于国,因粮于敌,故军食可足也。

国之贫于师者远输,远输则百姓贫;近于师者贵卖,贵卖则百姓财竭,财竭则急于丘役。力屈财殚,中原内虚于家。百姓之费,十去其七;公家之费,破车罢马,甲胄矢弩,戟楯蔽橹,丘牛大车,十去其六。

故智将务食于敌,食敌一钟,当吾二十钟; 秆一石,当吾二十石。故杀敌者,怒也;取敌之利者,货也。故车战,得车十乘以上,赏其先得者,而更其旌旗。车杂而乘之,卒善而养之,是谓胜敌而益强。

故兵贵胜,不贵久。故知兵之将,民之司命,国家安危之主也。

孙子曰:凡用兵之法,驰车千驷,革车千乘,带甲十万,千里馈粮,则内外之费,宾客之用,胶漆之材,车甲之奉,日费千金,然后十万之师举矣。
孙子说:大凡用兵作战,一般要动用战车一千辆,辎重车一千辆,集结全副武装的士兵十万人,还要千里迢迢运送军粮。这样国内外的各种费用开支,招待使节、策士的用度,维修作战器械的胶、漆等材料费用,保养战车、甲胄的支出等,每天都要耗费数额巨大的资金。做好了这些准备后,十万大军才能出动。
Sun Tzu said: in general, a thousand chariots and wagons should be used to fight with soldiers. A hundred thousand soldiers with full armaments should be assembled, and grain should be transported from thousands of miles away. In this way, all kinds of expenses at home and abroad, the expenses of entertaining envoys and strategists, the expenses of materials such as glue and paint for maintaining combat equipment, and the expenses for maintaining chariots and armours, etc., cost a huge amount of money every day. Only when these preparations are made can a hundred thousand troops go out.

其用战也胜,久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,久暴师则国用不足。
因此,军队作战就要力争速胜。旷日持久则军队必然疲惫,锐气受挫;强攻城池就会使兵力大量损耗;长期在外作战还必然会使国家财力承受很大的负担。
Therefore, the army must strive for quick victory in battle. A long time will surely make the army tired and frustrated; a strong attack on the city will cause a great loss of troops; a long-term operation outside the country will also make the country's financial resources bear a great burden.


夫钝兵挫锐,屈力殚货,则诸侯乘其弊而起,虽有智者,不能善其后矣。
如果军队疲惫,锐气受挫,兵力损折,军资耗尽,那么,别的诸侯国就会趁火打劫。到那时,即使再足智多谋的人,也无法挽回危局了。
If the army is tired, frustrated, damaged and depleted, then other vassal states will take advantage of the fire. By then, even the most resourceful people will not be able to save the crisis.

故兵闻拙速,未睹巧之久也。夫兵久而国利者,未之有也。
在实际作战中,只听说将领缺少高招难以速胜的,没有见过指挥高明巧于持久作战的。战争旷日持久而有利于国家的事,也从来没有过。
In actual combat, I have only heard that generals are hard to win quickly without good moves, and I have never seen commanders skillful in long-term combat. There has never been a protracted war that benefits the country.


故不尽知用兵之害者,则不能尽知用兵之利也。
因此,不充分认识军事使用的弊端,就不可能真正认识到军事使用的好处。
Therefore, it is impossible for people who do not fully understand the disadvantages of military use to really realize the advantages of military use.


-------

善用兵者,役不再籍,粮不三载,取用于国,因粮于敌,故军食可足也。
善于用兵的人,兵员绝不多次征集,粮草也不多次运送。在国内征取一次之后,就应该设法从敌人那里求得补给,这样,军队的粮草供应就可满足作战需求了。
Those who are good at using soldiers will not be recruited many times, nor will their food and grass be transported many times. After a domestic expedition, we should try to get supplies from the enemy, so that the army's supplies of food and grass can meet the operational needs.

conscriptions and grain transports both are as few as possible. These resources should come from the enemy, so as to ensure adequate supply of our troops. The good commander should know these.
征兵和粮食运输都是尽可能少的。这些资源应该取自于敌人,这样才能保证自己的部队供给充足。好指挥官应该知道这些。



国之贫于师者远输,远输则百姓贫;近师者贵卖,贵卖则百姓财竭,财竭则急于丘役。
国家由于兴兵而造成贫困的原因是长途运输。长途运输必然导致百姓贫穷。军队经过的地方物价必定高涨,物价上涨就会使百姓财物枯竭,物财枯竭,赋税和劳役必然加重。
在战争时期,长途运输能让国家变得贫穷,百姓变得贫穷。军队经过的地方物价必定高涨,物价上涨就会使百姓财物枯竭,物财枯竭,赋税和劳役必然加重。
In wartime, long-distance transportation can make the country poor and the people poor.Where the army passes, prices must rise.Rising prices will dry up people's property.When goods and wealth are exhausted, taxes and labor will inevitably increase.

力屈、财殚,中原、内虚于家,百姓之费,十去其七;
在战场上,军力耗尽,在国内财物枯竭,百姓的财产将因战争而损耗十分之七
On the battlefield, when the army is exhausted and the property in the country is exhausted, the property of the people will be consumed by the war by seven tenths

公家之费,破军罢马,甲胄矢弓,戟盾矛橹,丘牛大车,十去其六。
国家的资财也会由于车辆的损坏,马匹的疲病,盔甲服装、箭羽弓弩、枪戟盾牌、车蔽大橹的制作和补充,辎重车辆的征集和调用,而损耗十分之六。
国家的资产也会随着军械的准备,补修,制作,以及后勤的医疗,供给等事项导致大规模损耗。这种损耗,甚至可以到一个国家财政的十分之六。
The state's assets will also be subject to large-scale loss along with the preparation, repair, production, medical treatment and supply of armaments.

This kind of loss can even reach six tenths of a country's finance.


故智将务食于敌,食敌一钟,当吾二十钟;萁秆一石,当吾二十石。
所以,高明的将帅总是力求从敌人那里获得补给。从敌人那得到一钟粮食,就等于从本国运送二十钟粮食;消耗敌人的一石草料,相当于从本国运送二十石草料。
Therefore, a wise general always strives to get supplies from the enemy. One hour of grain from the enemy is equivalent to twenty hours of grain from his own country; one stone of grass consumed by the enemy is equivalent to twenty stones of grass from his own country.



故杀敌者,怒也;取敌之利者,货也。
将士之所以会奋勇杀敌,是因为他们有同仇敌忾之心;之所以勇于夺取敌人的军需物资,是因为能获得物质奖赏。
The reason why the soldiers are brave to kill the enemy is that they share the same hatred, and the reason why they are brave to seize the enemy's supplies is that they can get material rewards.

车战得车十乘以上,赏其先得者而更其旌旗。
所以,在车战中,凡是缴获敌人战车十辆以上的,就奖励最先缴获战车的人,而缴获的战车,要立即换上我方的旗帜,把缴获的战车混合编入自己的车阵之中。
Therefore, in vehicle warfare, those who capture more than ten enemy chariots will be rewarded with the first to capture them, and the captured chariots will be immediately put on our flag, and the captured chariots will be mixed into their own vehicle array.


---------

车杂而乘之,卒善而养之,是谓胜敌而益强。
换上我军的旗帜,将其混合编入自己的车阵之中;对于敌人的俘虏,要给予优待、抚慰和使用他们。这样就会战胜敌人而使自己日益强大。
Put on the flag of our army and mix it into our own vehicle array; give preferential treatment, comfort and use to the prisoners of the enemy. In this way, we will defeat the enemy and make ourselves stronger and stronger at same time.

故兵贵胜,不贵久。
战争中谋求的是最好的取胜之道,而不是在不停的展示自己的实力。
In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns.

故知兵之将,生民之司命,国家安危之主也。
所以将领必须清楚知道,战争关乎到国计民生,生死存亡。
So the general must know that war is related to the national economy and the people's livelihood.
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飘墨劲旅

 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:20:19 | 显示全部楼层
第三篇 谋攻

孙子曰:凡用兵之法,全国为上,破国次之;全军为上,破军次之;全旅为上,破旅次之;全卒为上,破卒次之;全伍为上,破伍次之。是故百战百胜,非善之善者也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。

故上兵伐谋,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城。攻城之法,为不得已。修橹辒,具器械,三月而后成,距堙,又三月而后已。将不胜其忿,而蚁附之,杀士卒三分之一,而城不拔者,此攻之灾也。

故善用兵者,屈人之兵而非战也,拔人之城而非攻也,毁人之国而非久也,必以全争于天下,故兵不顿而利可全,此谋攻之法也。

故用兵之法,十则围之,五则攻之,倍则分之,敌则能战之,少则能逃之,不若则能避之。故小敌之坚,大敌之擒也。

夫将者,国之辅也。辅周则国必强,辅隙则国必弱。

故君之所以患于军者三:不知军之不可以进而谓之进,不知军之不可以退而谓之退,是谓縻军;不知三军之事,而同三军之政,则军士惑矣;不知三军之权,而同三军之任,则军士疑矣。三军既惑且疑,则诸侯之难至矣,是谓乱军引胜。

故知胜有五:知可以战与不可以战者胜,识众寡之用者胜,上下同欲者胜,以虞待不虞者胜,将能而君不御者胜。此五者,知胜之道也。

故曰:知彼知己,百战不殆;不知彼而知己,一胜一负;不知彼不知己,每战必殆。

孙子曰:夫用兵之法,
全国为上,破国次之,
全军为上,破军次之;
全旅为上,破旅次之;
全卒为上,破卒次之;
全伍为上,破伍次之。

孙子说,作战的方式,赢取一个完整的战略目标单位肯定要比接手一个破坏的要好。这种理念上至整个国家,下至每个个体,都适用。
Sun Tzu said that it is better to win a complete strategic target unit of fighting than to take over a sabotage. This idea applies to any case, include the whole country and to every individual.

是故百战百胜,非善之善者也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。
在战场上战胜敌人多少次都不是最高明的,最高明的是在发生战争之前直接扼杀敌人形成战斗条件,从而导致不需要通过战斗,直接获取胜利,才是最高明的。
It is not the most wise to defeat the enemy many times on the battlefield. It is the best to directly kill the victory conditions of enemy before a war, so as to lead to victory without fighting.

故上兵伐谋,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城。
所以战争最高形式,实在谋划中决定胜负,低一级的就是通过谈判来决断,再低一级的是升级到军备竞赛,最不好的是发生战争。
So the highest form of war really determines the outcome. The lower level is to make decisions through negotiations. The lower level is to upgrade to an arms race. The worst is to have a war.

攻城之法为不得已。
发生战争,破坏彼此的国家,是没有其它选择下的最坏选择。
War and destruction of each other's countries are the worst option without any other.

修橹轒辒,具器械,三月而后成,距堙,又三月而后已。将不胜其忿而蚁附之,杀士三分之一而城不拔者,此攻之灾也。
为了攻城,修造盾牌轮车,准备各种攻城器械,这是一个需要耗费时日的工作;堆筑攻城用的土山,也同样耗费时日。如果将领难以拟制焦躁的情绪,命令士兵像蚂蚁一样爬上云梯去攻打敌人城池,结果可能是士兵大量死伤,但仍未能攻破敌人的城池。这就是使用攻城策略的危害。
In order to attack the city, it takes time to build shield wheel cars and prepare all kinds of siege equipment.
It also takes time to build earth mountains for the siege.
If it is difficult for the general to make up the anxious mood and order the soldiers to climb up the ladder like ants to attack the enemy city, the result may be a large number of casualties of the soldiers, but they still fail to break the enemy city.
This is the harm of using siege strategy.

故善用兵者,屈人之兵而非战也,拔人之城而非攻也,毁人之国而非久也,必以全争于天下。
故兵不顿而利可全,此谋攻之法也。
因此,善于用兵打仗的人,能不依靠战场厮杀而让敌人的军队降服,能不依靠强攻来夺取敌人的城池,能消灭敌国而不必进行旷日持久的征战。
他们务求用“全胜”的策略争胜于天下,从而既能不使国力、兵力受挫,又能获得全面胜利。
这正是以谋略克敌制胜的法则。

Therefore, those who are good at fighting with soldiers can subdue the enemy's army without relying on battlefield fighting, capture the enemy's city without relying on strong attack, and eliminate the enemy's country without having to carry out long-term war.
They strive to win in the world with the strategy of "total victory", so as not to frustrate the national strength and military strength, but also to win in an all-round way.
This is the rule of strategic victory.

故用兵之法,十则围之,五则攻之,倍则分之,敌则能战之,少则能逃之,不若则能避之。故小敌之坚,大敌之擒也。
所以,在实际作战中的战术方法是:我方的兵力十倍于敌军时,就实施围歼;
我方的兵力五倍于敌军时,便对敌军发起猛攻;
我方的兵力两倍于敌军时就要设法将敌军分散,各个击破;
敌我双方的兵力相当时,可以与敌军对抗;
我方兵力比敌军少时,就要设法摆脱敌军;
我方的实力不如敌军时,就要尽量避免与其交战。
Therefore, the tactics in actual combat are as follows:
when our forces are ten times that of the enemy, we will carry out encirclement and annihilation;
when our forces are two times that of the enemy, we should try to disperse them and break them down individually;
when the forces of both sides are equal, they can fight against the enemy;
when our forces are smaller than those of the enemy, we must try to get rid of them;
when our strength is inferior to that of the enemy, we should try to avoid fighting with them.

所以,我方兵不如对手就要考虑如何保存实力,我方兵强于对手就要考虑如何拿下敌军。
Therefore, if our troops are not as good as our opponents, we must consider how to preserve our strength, and if our troops are better than our opponents, we must consider how to win the enemy.

夫将者,国之辅也。辅周,则国必强;辅隙,则国必弱。
将帅是国君的辅佐,辅佐得周详严密,国家就必定强盛;辅佐有疏漏,国家就必然衰弱。
The general is the assistant of the monarch. If the assistant is careful and strict, the country will be strong; if the assistant is careless, the country will be weak.

故君之所以患于军者三:
不知军之不可以进而谓之进,不知军之不可以退而谓之退,是谓“縻军”;
不知三军之事,而同三军之政者,则军士惑矣;
不知三军之权,而同三军之任,则军士疑矣。
三军既惑且疑,则诸侯之难至矣,是谓“乱军引胜”。
国君对军队的危害大体有三种:
不了解军队不可以进攻而命令进攻,不了解军队不能撤退而强令军队撤退,这叫做束缚军队;
不懂得军中事务却要干预军队的管理事务,将士们会无所适从;
不懂得军队作战的权宜机变,却要干预军队的指挥,将士就会产生疑虑。
如果军队既无所适从,又疑虑重重,其他诸侯国就会趁机兴兵作难。
这就叫做自乱其军,自取其败。
There are three kinds of harm that monarchs do to the army:
If monarch don't understand that the army can't attack and order the attack, and if monarch don't understand that the army can't retreat and force the army to retreat, it's called binding the army;
If monarch don't understand the military affairs but want to interfere in the management of the military affairs, they will be at a loss;
If monarch do not understand the expediency and opportunity of military operations, but want to intervene in the command of the army, the soldiers will have doubts.
If the army is at a loss and full of doubts, the opponents of all sides will take the opportunity and move against us.the opponents of all sides will take the opportunity and move against us..
It's called self defeating and self defeating.

故知胜有五:知可以战与不可以战者胜,识众寡之用者胜,上下同欲者胜,以虞待不虞者胜,将能而君不御者胜。
此五者,知胜之道也。
因此,以下五种情况可预见获胜:
懂得什么情况下可以与敌作战,什么情况下不能与敌作战的,能够获胜;
懂得根据兵力的多寡而灵活采取不同战略战术的,能够获胜;
将帅与士兵同心同德、同仇敌忾的,能够获胜;
以有备之师对付疏懈之敌的,能够获胜;
将帅有组织指挥才能而国君又不妄加干预的,能够获胜。
这五者是作战取胜的根本条件。
As a result, the following five scenarios are foreseeable:
He who knows under what circumstances can fight with the enemy and under what circumstances cannot fight with the enemy can win;
Those who know how to adopt different strategies and tactics flexibly according to the number of troops can win;
Generals and soldiers can win if they share the same morality and hatred;
If a prepared division is used against a weak enemy, it can win;
If a general has the ability to organize and direct, and the monarch does not intervene in vain, he can win.
These five factors are the fundamental conditions for victory in combat.

故曰:知彼知己者,百战不殆;不知彼而知己,一胜一负,不知彼,不知己,每战必殆。
所以说:既了解敌方情况,又了解自己情况,才能常胜不败;不了解敌方情况,只了解自己情况,胜败的几率均等;既不了解敌方情况,又不了解自己情况,那每战必败。
Therefore, only when we know the enemy's situation and our own, can we always win and never lose; if we don't know the enemy's situation, we only know our own situation, and the odds of winning and losing are equal; if we don't know the enemy's situation and our own situation, we will lose every battle.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:23:17 | 显示全部楼层
第四篇 军形

孙子曰:昔之善战者,先为不可胜,以待敌之可胜。不可胜在己,可胜在敌。故善战者,能为不可胜,不能使敌之必可胜。故曰:胜可知,而不可为。

不可胜者,守也;可胜者,攻也。守则不足,攻则有余。善守者,藏于九地之下;善攻者,动于九天之上;故能自保而全胜也。

见胜不过众人之所知,非善之善者也;战胜而天下曰善,非善之善者也。故举秋毫不为多力,见日月不为明目,闻雷霆不为聪耳。古之所谓善战者,胜于易胜者也。故善战者之胜也,无智名,无勇功。故其战胜不忒。不忒者,其所措必胜,胜已败者也。故善战者,立于不败之地,而不失敌之败也。是故胜兵先胜而后求战,败兵先战而后求胜。善用兵者,修道而保法,故能为胜败之政。

兵法:一曰度,二曰量,三曰数,四曰称,五曰胜。地生度,度生量,量生数,数生称,称生胜。故胜兵若以镒称铢,败兵若以铢称镒。胜者之战民也,若决积水于千仞之溪者,形也。

孙子曰:昔之善战者,先为不可胜,以待敌之可胜。
首先要创造条件,使自己不致被敌人战胜,然后等待和寻求敌人可能被我战胜的时机。
First of all, we should create conditions so that we will not be defeated by the enemy, and then we should wait for and seek opportunities when the enemy may be defeated by me.

不可胜在己,可胜在敌。
使自己不被战胜,其主动权掌握在自己手中;敌人能否被战胜,在于敌人是否给我们以可乘之机。
To keep ourselves invincible, the initiative lies in our own hands; whether the enemy can be defeated depends on whether the enemy gives us an opportunity.

故善战者,能为不可胜,不能使敌之必可胜。
所以,善于作战的人只能够使自己不被战胜,而不能使敌人一定会被我军战胜。
Therefore, a man who is good at fighting can only prevent himself from being defeated, but not make sure that the enemy will be defeated by our army.

故曰:胜可知,而不可为。
胜利是可以预知的,但敌人有无可乘之隙,被我使用战胜,则不能完全由我而定。
Victory can be predicted, but it is not entirely up to me to decide whether or not the enemy can take advantage of it and be defeated by me.

不可胜者,守也;可胜者,攻也。
取胜的条件不足时,保存实力;取胜的条件充足时,采取进攻。
When the conditions for winning are insufficient, the strength shall be preserved; when the conditions for winning are sufficient, the attack shall be taken.

守则不足,攻则有余。
所以采取守势,是因为取胜条件不足;所以采取攻势,是由于取胜条件有余。
Therefore, to take defensive action is due to the lack of winning conditions; so to take offensive action is due to the surplus of winning conditions.

善守者,藏于九地之下;善攻者,动于九天之上;故能自保而全胜也。
九,泛指多数,不是具体的规定。
the [nine ] is not a real number. It only means something about the big numbers or high levels.
九地,极言深不可知;九天,极言高不可测。
Nine places: the most profound hidden things that do not know by enemy; nine days: the most perfect action is unpredictable by enemy.
藏于九地之下,指极其深地隐藏自己的力量。
动于九天之上,指极其高明地发挥自己的威力。
1. the most profound hidden things that do not know by enemy, the most perfect action is unpredictable by enemy.
2. The best defend is hidden somewhere that do not been known by enemy, the best attack is unpredictable motion by enemy. who do both is never fail in the war.

见胜不过众人之所知,非善之善者也;战胜而天下曰善,非善之善者也。
如果是大家都知道的胜果,这不是最好的战果;世界上所有的人都知道的胜果,也不是最好的战果。
If it's known victory by everyone, it's not the best outcome; If it's recognised victory by all of the word, it's also not the best outcome.

故举秋毫不为多力,见日月不为明目,闻雷霆不为聪耳。
就好比举起秋天的枯叶不因为很有力气,看见日月不因为眼睛好,能听见雷声不因为耳朵好。
It means: to lift up the dead leaves doesn't mean strong; to see the sun and the moon doesn't mean good sight, to heard the thunder doesn't mean good hearing.

古之所谓善战者,胜于易胜者也。
所以历史上真正懂打仗的将军,总是在获取最容易的胜利。
So the generals who really knew how to fight in history were always winning the most easily.

故善战者之胜也,无智名,无勇功。
由于别人总看他们的胜利来得最容易,所以不会认为他们很有智慧,也不会认为他们很勇敢。
Because others always see their victory as the easiest, the generals are not recognised very intelligent or brave.

故其战胜不忒。不忒者,其所措必胜,胜已败者也。
所以他们打仗不会失误。所谓的不失误,用必胜的法子,赢必败的对手。
So they don't make mistakes in fighting. The so-called don't make mistakes, use the method of winning to deal with the opponent who was already lose.

故善战者,立于不败之地,而不失敌之败也。
意思是善于用兵打仗的人,先立于不败之地,而后不放过敌人的漏洞,取得胜利。
It means that those who are good at using their troops to fight first stand in an invincible position, and then win by not letting go of the enemy's loopholes.

是故胜兵先胜而后求战,败兵先战而后求胜。
所以优秀的部队,总是先拥有了胜利的条件,然后再去发动战争,而陷入困难的部队,往往是先进入战争的状态,再考虑如何谋求胜利。
So the excellent troops always have the conditions for victory before they start a war, while the troops in difficulty often enter the state of war first and then consider how to win.

善用兵者,修道而保法,故能为胜败之政。
善于用兵的人,总是能够遵循法度调整方法,所以才能成为战争胜负的主宰。
Those who are good at using soldiers can always follow the method of law adjustment, so they can become the masters of the victory and defeat of war.

兵法:一曰度,二曰量,三曰数,四曰称,五曰胜。地生度,度生量,量生数,数生称,称生胜。
兵法中,首先就要根据实际情况建立计算模型,然后要把计算的参考进行量化,进而得出确切数字,然后对此进行比较寻求平衡,最终获取胜利。
In the art of war, first of all, we should establish the calculation model according to the actual situation, then we should quantify the reference of calculation, and then get the exact number, and then we can compare and seek the balance, and finally win.

故胜兵若以镒称铢,败兵若以铢称镒。
所以用兵之法,通过计算,以大搏小赢的机会很大,以小博大失败的可能性很大。
Therefore, the method of using troops, through calculation, has a great chance of winning with a big fight and a big chance of losing with a small fight.

古代重量单位,一镒合二十两(一说二十四两)
古代质量单位。 一两的二十四分之 一。常指极轻的分量。

胜者之战民也,若决积水于千仞之溪者,形也。
在实力对比上取得优势的一方,指挥士兵作战,就像决开千仞之高的山涧积水一样,势不可当,这就是所谓的“形”。
The party that has gained an advantage in strength comparison, commanding the soldiers to fight, is just as irresistible as breaking through a mountain stream of standing water, which is the so-called "shape".
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发表于 2020-11-30 20:24:42 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
耳朵老师辛苦了!
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:27:55 | 显示全部楼层
第五篇 兵势

孙子曰:凡治众如治寡,分数是也;斗众如斗寡,形名是也;三军之众,可使毕受敌而无败者,奇正是也;兵之所加,如以碫投卵者,虚实是也。

凡战者,以正合,以奇胜。故善出奇者,无穷如天地,不竭如江河。终而复始,日月是也。死而复生,四时是也。声不过五,五声之变,不可胜听也。色不过五,五色之变,不可胜观也。味不过五,五味之变,不可胜尝也。战势,如循环之无端,孰能穷之哉?

激水之疾,至于漂石者,势也;鸷鸟之疾,至于毁折者,节也。是故善战者,其势险,其节短。势如弩,节如发机。

纷纷纭纭,斗乱而不可乱也;浑浑沌沌,形圆而不可败也。乱生于治,怯生于勇,弱生于强。治乱,数也;勇怯,势也;强弱,形也。故善动敌者,形之,敌必从之;予之,敌必取之。以利动之,以卒待之。

故善战者,求之于势,不责于人,故能择人而任势。任势者,其战人也,如转木石。木石之性,安则静,危则动,方则止,圆则行。故善战人之势,如转圆石于千仞之山者,势也。



孙子曰:凡治众如治寡,分数是也;斗众如斗寡,形名是也;
孙子说:管理千军万马就如管理小部队一样应付自如,是因为军队组织、结构和编制合理严密;指挥大部队作战如同指挥小部队作战一样到位,是由于号令指挥明确、高效;
Management of thousands of troops is as flexible as management of small forces, because the organization, structure and organization of the army are reasonable and rigorous; command of large forces is as effective as command of small forces, because command is clear and efficient;

三军之众,可使毕受敌而无败者,奇正是也;
全军与敌对抗而不致失败,关键在于“奇正”战术运用正确、巧妙;
The key to the confrontation between the whole army and the enemy without failure lies in the correct and ingenious use of "Qizheng" tactics;

兵之所加,如以碫投卵者,虚实是也。
指挥进攻,能如同以石击卵般容易,攻无不克、战无不胜,关键在于擅长避实就虚。
It's as easy to attack as to hit an egg with a stone, invincible,the key is that attack the weak point and avoid strong point of enemy.  

凡战者,以正合,以奇胜。
大凡用兵作战,总是以正兵作正面交战,而用奇兵去出奇制胜。
in general,war should work in normal method, but the key of the victory is defeat opponent by a surprise move.

故善出奇者,无穷如天地,不竭如江河。
所以善于出奇制胜的将帅,其战术变化,就像天地运行一样变化无穷无尽,像江海一样奔腾不息,永不枯竭。
The generals who are good at defeat opponent by a surprise move, their tactics always change, blemishless, again and again.

终而复始,日月是也。死而复生,四时是也。
周而复始,就像日月运行;去了又来,就像四季更替。
(Tactics is running) again and again, it likes day and night, it likes seasons replacement

声不过五,五声之变,不可胜听也。
音阶不过宫、商、角、徵、羽,但五个音阶融合演奏的音乐却是无穷不尽的;
musical scale is only five (in Chinese Culture), but they can be form countless songs.

色不过五,五色之变,不可胜观也。
颜色不过青、赤、黄、白、黑,但五种颜色调和绘成的画图之美是观赏不完的;
the colours are only green, red, yellow, white, black(in Chinese Culture), but they can be drawed countless picture.

味不过五,五味之变,不可胜尝也。
味道虽然只有辛、酸、咸、甜、苦,但五味调配的滋味却是品尝不尽的;
taste are only spicy, sour, salty, sweet and bitter, but they can be form countless dish.

战势,如循环之无端,孰能穷之哉?
作战的战术方法不过“奇”和“正”两种,但奇正的变化运用,却是无穷无尽的。奇正相互依存,相互转化,就如同圆环那样无始无终,谁又能使它尽呢?
The tactical methods of combat are only "Qi" and "Zheng", but the change and application of "Qi and Zheng" are endless.They depend on each other and transform with each other, just like the ring has no beginning and no end. Who can make it all?
Zheng: normal method
Qi: someway unthinkable

激水之疾,至于漂石者,势也;鸷鸟之疾,至于毁折者,节也。
湍急的水流疾速奔泻,以至于能将石头冲走,这是由于水势强大;猛禽搏击雀鸟,一举可置对手于死地,是因为它掌握了最有利于爆发冲击力的时空位置,节奏迅猛。
The rapid current rushes so fast that it can wash away the stone, which is due to the strong water potential; the Raptor fights the bird, which can kill the opponent at one stroke, because it grasps the most favorable space-time position for the explosive impact force, with rapid rhythm.

是故善战者,其势险,其节短。势如弩,节如发机。
因此,善于作战的将帅,他所造成的态势总是险峻而咄咄逼人,发起攻击的节奏总是短促快捷。险峻的态势如同张满的强弩,短促的节奏如同触发的弩机。
Therefore, the general who is good at fighting is always dangerous and aggressive, and the pace of attack is always short and fast. The precipitous situation is like a full strong crossbow, and the short rhythm is like a trigger.

纷纷纭纭,斗乱而不可乱也;浑浑沌沌,形圆而不可败也。
旌旗纷纷,人马纭纭,双方混战,战场上事态万端,但自己的指挥、组织、阵脚不能乱;兵如潮涌,混沌迷离,军队阵形严整就会不可战胜。
There are many flags, different people and different horses, and the two sides are fighting in confusion. The situation on the battlefield is myriad, but their command, organization and positions cannot be disordered. If the troops are surging and confused, the troops will be invincible if they are in perfect formation.

乱生于治,怯生于勇,弱生于强。
双方交战,一方之乱,是因为对方治军更严整:一方怯懦,是因为对方更勇敢;一方弱小,是因为对方更强大。
When two sides are at war, one side is in disorder because the other side runs the army more strictly; when one side is cowardly, it is because the other side is braver; when the other side is weak, it is because the other side is stronger.

治乱,数也;勇怯,势也;强弱,形也。
军队治理严整或混乱,是由军队组织的编制所决定的;士兵勇敢或怯懦,是由各自所处的态势所决定的;军力强大或弱小,是各自军队日常训练所造就的内在实力的体现。
It is determined by the organization of the army that the army manages strictly or confusedly; the bravery or cowardice of the soldiers is determined by their own situation; the strength of the army is strong or weak, which is the embodiment of the internal strength created by their daily training.

故善动敌者,形之,敌必从之;予之,敌必取之。
因而,善于调动敌人的高明的指挥员,就善于故意向对方展示假的军情,让敌人根据这个假象作出相应的错误举动;给敌人一点实际利益作为诱饵,敌军必然趋利而来,从而听我调动。
Therefore, a wise commander who is good at mobilizing the enemy is good at deliberately showing the false military information to the other party, so that the enemy can make corresponding wrong actions according to the false image; if he gives the enemy some actual interests as bait, the enemy will inevitably come to the advantage, so as to listen to me.

以利动之,以卒待之。
一方面用这些办法调动敌军,一方面要严阵以待,伺机进攻。
On the one hand, we should use these methods to mobilize the enemy. On the other hand, we should be ready to attack.

故善战者,求之于势,不责于人。
因此,善于用兵作战的人,总是自己造就“势”去追求胜利,而不苛求部下以苦战取胜。
Therefore, those who are good at fighting with troops always create their own "potential" to pursue victory, rather than demanding their subordinates to win through hard struggle.

故能择人而任势。
因此他能够很好地择才用人,巧妙地利用或创造必胜的态势。
Therefore, he can select right people for his goal, and get victory the end.

任势者,其战人也,如转木石。
善于利用态势的人,他们指挥军队作战就像转动木头、石头一样。
People who are good at using situation, they command the army to fight just like turning wood and stone

木石之性,安则静,危则动,方则止,圆则行。
木头、石头的特性是:放在安稳平坦的地势上就静止不动,放在险峻陡峭的斜坡上就会滚动;方形容易静止,圆形容易滚动。
The characteristics of wood and stone are as follows: when placed on a stable and flat terrain, they will stay still; when placed on a steep slope, they will roll; when placed on a square, they are easy to stand still; when placed on a circle, they are easy to roll.
It means each part would run clearly and be control easily.

故善战人之势,如转圆石于千仞之山者,势也。
因此,善于指挥作战的人所造成的态势,就像将圆石从万丈高山滚下来那样,能无坚不摧。这就是所谓的“势”。
Therefore, the situation created by those who are good at commanding operations is as impregnable as the rolling down of a boulder from a lofty mountain. This is called "potential".
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:31:16 | 显示全部楼层
第六篇 虚实

孙子曰:凡先处战地而待敌者佚,后处战地而趋战者劳。故善战者,致人而不致于人。能使敌人自至者,利之也;能使敌人不得至者,害之也。故敌佚能劳之,饱能饥之,安能动之。

出其所不趋,趋其所不意。行千里而不劳者,行于无人之地也。攻而必胜者,攻其所不守也;守而必固者,守其所不攻也。故善攻者,敌不知其所守;善守者,敌不知其所攻。微乎微乎,至于无形;神乎神乎,至于无声,故能为敌之司命。

进而不可御者,冲其虚也;退而不可追者,速而不可及也。故我欲战,敌虽高垒深沟,不得不与我战者,攻其所必救也;我不欲战,虽画地而守之,敌不得与我战者,乖其所之也。

故形人而我无形,则我专而敌分。我专为一,敌分为十,是以十攻其一也,则我众而敌寡。能以众击寡者,则吾之所与战者,约矣。吾所与战之地不可知,不可知,则敌所备者多;敌所备者多,则吾所与战者,寡矣。故备前则后寡,备后则前寡,备左则右寡,备右则左寡,无所不备,则无所不寡。寡者,备人者也;众者,使人备己者也。

故知战之地,知战之日,则可千里而会战。不知战地,不知战日,则左不能救右,右不能救左,前不能救后,后不能救前,而况远者数十里,近者数里乎?

以吾度之,越人之兵虽多,亦奚益于胜哉?故曰:胜可为也,敌虽众,可使无斗。

故策之而知得失之计,作之而知动静之理,形之而知死生之地,角之而知有余不足之处。

故形兵之极,至于无形。无形,则深间不能窥,智者不能谋。因形而措胜于众,众不能知。人皆知我所以胜之形,而莫知吾所以制胜之形,故其战胜不复,而应形于无穷。

夫兵形象水,水之形避高而趋下,兵之形避实而击虚;水因地而制流,兵因敌而制胜。故兵无常势,水无常形。能因敌变化而取胜者,谓之神。故五行无常胜,四时无常位,日有短长,月有死生。

孙子曰:凡先处战地而待敌者佚,后处战地而趋战者劳。
孙子说:两军交战,大凡先在阵地中做好准备的能占据主动、安逸从容待敌,而不能先在阵地中做好准备的就会紧张、劳顿。
Sun Tzu said: when the two armies are engaged, those who are ready in the position first can take the initiative, be comfortable and calm with the enemy, while those who are not ready in the position first will be nervous and overworked.

故善战者,致人而不致于人。
因此,善于指挥作战的人,总是能先做好战斗准备,占据主动,设法调动敌人而不被敌人所调动。
Therefore, those who are good at commanding operations are always ready to fight first, take the initiative and try to mobilize the enemy instead of being mobilized by the enemy.

能使敌人自至者,利之也;能使敌人不得至者,害之也。
能让敌人在自己的设定中,要用利益作为诱导,让敌人不超出自己的设定,要用厉害去威逼。
To enable the enemy to use interests as guidance in our setting, to keep the enemy within our setting, and to use force to intimidate.

故敌佚能劳之,饱能饥之,安能动之。
所以,敌人若安逸闲适,我们就烦而扰之,使其疲倦;敌人若粮草充足,我们就设法使其饥困;敌人若安守自固,我们就挑衅骚扰,使其不得安宁而动。
Therefore, if the enemy is at ease and leisure, we will harass him and make him tired; if the enemy has enough food and grass, we will try to make him hungry and trapped; if the enemy is safe and defends himself, we will provoke and harass him and make him restless and move.

出其所不趋,趋其所不意。
在敌人无法紧急救援的地方出击,在敌人意想不到的条件下进攻。
Attack where the enemy is unable to rescue in an emergency and attack under unexpected conditions.

行千里而不劳者,行于无人之地也。
行军千里而不致疲劳和被消耗,是因为行进在敌人没有设防的地区。
Marching thousands of miles without fatigue or consumption is due to marching in areas where the enemy is not fortified.

攻而必胜者,攻其所不守也;守而必固者,守其所不攻也。
进攻之所以必然取胜,是因为进攻敌人疏于防备的区域;防守之所以能固若金汤,是由于防守在敌人无力进攻的地方。
The reason why the attack is inevitable to win is because the attacking enemy neglects the defensive area; the reason why the defense is solid is because the defense is in the place where the enemy is unable to attack.

故善攻者,敌不知其所守;善守者,敌不知其所攻。
所以,善于进攻的人,能使敌人不知如何防守;善于防守的人,能使敌人不知如何进攻。
Therefore, those who are good at attacking can make the enemy not know how to defend; those who are good at defending can make the enemy not know how to attack.

微乎微乎,至于无形;神乎神乎,至于无声,故能为敌之司命。
尽可能做到精细微妙,无形无相,所以能成为敌人的主宰者。
Try to be subtle and invisible, so you can be the control of the enemy.

进而不可御者,冲其虚也;退而不可追者,速而不可及也。
进攻时,敌人无法抵御,那是攻击了敌人兵力空虚的地方;撤退时,敌人无法追击,那是行动迅速敌人无法追上。
When attacking, the enemy is unable to resist, which is the place where the enemy's forces are empty; when retreating, the enemy is unable to pursue, which is the place where the enemy can't catch up quickly.

故我欲战,敌虽高垒深沟,不得不与我战者,攻其所必救也;我不欲战,虽画地而守之,敌不得与我战者,乖其所之也。
因此,我军若想决战,敌人即使有高墙深壕可以据守,也不得不出来应战,因为我军攻击的是敌人必须救援的要害之处;我军若不想交战,哪怕是画地而守,敌人也无法与我军交战,这是因为我军已设法改变了敌军进攻的方向。
Therefore, if our army wants to fight decisively, even if the enemy has high walls and deep trenches to defend, it has to come out to fight, because what we attack is the key point that the enemy must rescue; if we don't want to fight, even if we defend on the ground, the enemy can't fight with our army, because our army has managed to change the direction of the enemy's attack.

故形人而我无形,则我专而敌分。
因此,设法使敌人显露形迹而我军则藏而不露,这样我军便可以集中兵力而使敌军兵力分散。
Therefore, we should try to make the enemy be exposed while our army keeps it hidden, so that we can concentrate our forces and disperse them.

我专为一,敌分为十,是以十攻其一也,则我众而敌寡。
如果我军兵力集合于一点,而敌军兵力分散为十处,那我军就是用十倍于敌的兵力去攻打敌军,这样,在局部战场上便可形成我众敌寡的绝对优势。
If our forces are concentrated at one point and the enemy forces are scattered at ten, then our army will attack the enemy with ten times the enemy's forces. In this way, we will have an absolute advantage in the local battlefield.

能以众击寡者,则吾之所与战者,约矣。
既然能造成以众击寡的有利态势,那么敌军也就难有作为了。
Since it can create a favorable situation in which there are few attacks, it will be difficult for the enemy to do anything.

吾所与战之地不可知,不可知,则敌所备者多;敌所备者多,则吾所与战者,寡矣。
我军与敌人决战的地点,事先不可使敌人知道,敌人不知道决战的地点,就会多处分兵设防守备;敌人设防的地方多了,兵力就会分散,那么,能够与我军在特定的地点直接交战的敌军就少了。
We must not let the enemy know the location of the decisive battle in advance. If the enemy does not know the location of the decisive battle, there will be multiple divisions for defense. If the enemy has more places for defense, the forces will be scattered, so there will be fewer enemies who can directly engage with our army at specific locations.

故备前则后寡,备后则前寡,备左则右寡,备右则左寡,无所不备,则无所不寡。
因此说,着重防备前方,后方就薄弱;着重防备后方前方就薄弱;着重防备左翼,右翼就薄弱;着重防备右翼,左翼就薄弱;无处不防备,那就无处不薄弱。
Therefore, if we focus on defending the front, the rear will be weak; if we focus on defending the rear, the front will be weak; if we focus on defending the left, the right will be weak; if we focus on defending the right, the left will be weak; if we do guard everywhere, we will be weak everywhere.

寡者,备人者也;众者,使人备己者也。
敌军兵力薄弱的原因是兵力分散;我军形成兵力集中的优势在于迫使敌人分散兵力防备我军。
The weakness of the enemy's forces is due to the dispersion of forces; the advantage us that our army's concentration forcing and the enemy's defend to disperse

故知战之地,知战之日,则可千里而会战。
所以能够控制出决战的地点和时间,纵使千里之外也能会战
So we can control the location and time of the decisive battle, even if we can meet thousands of miles away

不知战地,不知战日,则左不能救右,右不能救左,前不能救后,后不能救前,而况远者数十里,近者数里乎?
不能确定地点,时间,根本就不能很好的部署战前准备,就算敌人就在阵前也不应作战。
If we can't determine the location and time, we simply can't make good preparations for the deployment of war. There is no advantage for us, even if the enemy is in front of.

以吾度之,越人之兵虽多,亦奚益于胜哉?
依我的分析来看,越国的兵力虽然很多,但兵多对争取战争胜利又有何帮助呢?所以说,胜利是可以创造的。敌军的兵力虽多,却可以使之分散而无法有效地参加战斗。
According to my analysis, although there are many troops in Vietnam, how can they help to win the war? So victory can be created. Although the enemy has a large number of troops, they can be dispersed and unable to participate in the battle effectively.

故曰:胜可为也,敌虽众,可使无斗。
所以说,胜利是可以创造的。敌军的兵力虽多,却可以使之分散而无法有效地参加战斗。
According to my analysis, although there are many troops in Yue, how can they help to win the war? So victory can be created. Although the enemy has a large number of troops, they can be dispersed and unable to participate in the battle effectively. So victory can be created. Although the enemy has a large number of troops, they can be dispersed and unable to participate in the battle effectively.

故策之而知得失之计,作之而知动静之理,形之而知死生之地,角之而知有余不足之处。
所以,通过计算可以评估双方的优劣;通过运作可以评估敌方活动规律,己方活动节奏;通过研究布局可以评估战争胜负关键;通过试探性攻击可以评估彼此双方在战斗中的不足。
Therefore, advantages and disadvantages of both sides can be evaluated by calculation;through operation, we can evaluate the rules of enemy activities and the rhythm of our own forces' activities;by studying the layout, we can evaluate the key to win or lose the war; exploratory attacks can be used to assess each other's deficiencies in combat.

故形兵之极,至于无形。
所以最完美的布局,就是根本让别人识别不出。
So the most perfect layout is that it can't be recognized by others at all.

无形,则深间不能窥,智者不能谋。
到这种境地,即使是潜伏再深的间谍也窥探不到我军的底细,再怎么足智多谋的敌军将领也都无计可施。
In such a situation, even the deep-seated spies can't pry into the details of our army. No matter how resourceful the enemy generals are, they can't do anything.

因形而措胜于众,众不能知。
根据情况灵活运用示形而取胜,即使把胜利摆在众人面前,众人也不知其中的奥妙。
According to the situation, we can use the layout flexibly to win. Even if we put the victory in front of the public, they don't know the secret.

人皆知我所以胜之形,而莫知吾所以制胜之形,故其战胜不复,而应形于无穷。
人们只知我军克敌制胜的方法,却不知道我军是怎样运用这些方法来制胜的。取得了胜利,不要重复使用老战术,而应该根据情况灵活使用,示形的方法是无穷无尽的。
People only know how our army can defeat the enemy and win, but they don't know how our army can use these methods to win. If we win, we should not use the old tactics repeatedly, but use them flexibly according to the situation. There is no end to the methods of showing shape.

夫兵形象水,水之形避高而趋下,兵之形避实而击虚;水因地而制流,兵因敌而制胜。故兵无常势,水无常形。
所以说,用兵的规律如同水的流动。水不向高而向低流,用兵则是避开敌军的主力或者防守牢固之处,攻击其薄弱环节。水因地势的高低而决定流向,用兵则要根据不同的敌情来采用不同的制胜之策。所以用兵作战没有一成不变的态势或一定之规,正如流水没有固定的形状和去向。
Therefore, the law of using soldiers is like the flow of water. Water does not flow to the high but to the low. To use troops is to avoid the main force of the enemy or the strong points of defense and attack the weak points. The flow direction of water depends on the height of terrain, so as same as war, different strategies should be adopted to win according to different enemy situations. Therefore, there is no fixed situation or rule in the use of troops, just as water has no fixed shape and direction.

能因敌变化而取胜者,谓之神。故五行无常胜,四时无常位,日有短长,月有死生。
能随着敌情发展变化而采取灵活变化的措施取胜的人,才能说是用兵如神。因此,金、木、水、火、土五行相生相克,没有哪一个永远占据优势;四时轮回更替,没有哪个季节会永远固定不变。白天有长有短,月亮有圆也有缺。
Only those who can take flexible measures to win with the development and change of the enemy's situation can be said to use their arms like gods. It similars the five elements, no one of them is the best and worst; also similars the seasons, no season is ecer fixer. The days are long and short, and the moon is round and short.
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飘墨劲旅

 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:50:28 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 东方耳 于 2020-11-30 20:51 编辑

第七篇 军争

孙子曰:凡用兵之法,将受命于君,合军聚众,交和而舍,莫难于军争。军争之难者,以迂为直,以患为利。故迂其途,而诱之以利,后人发,先人至,此知迂直之计者也。

故军争为利,军争为危。举军而争利,则不及;委军而争利,则辎重捐。是故卷甲而趋,日夜不处,倍道兼行,百里而争利,则擒三将军,劲者先,疲者后,其法十一而至;五十里而争利,则蹶上将军,其法半至;三十里而争利,则三分之二至。是故军无辎重则亡,无粮食则亡,无委积则亡。

故不知诸侯之谋者,不能豫交;不知山林、险阻、沮泽之形者,不能行军;不用乡导者,不能得地利。故兵以诈立,以利动,以分合为变者也。故其疾如风,其徐如林,侵掠如火,不动如山,难知如阴,动如雷震。掠乡分众,廓地分利,悬权而动。先知迂直之计者胜,此军争之法也。

《军政》曰:“言不相闻,故为金鼓;视不相见,故为旌旗。”夫金鼓旌旗者,所以一人之耳目也。人既专一,则勇者不得独进,怯者不得独退,此用众之法也。故夜战多金鼓,昼战多旌旗,所以变人之耳目也。

故三军可夺气,将军可夺心。是故朝气锐,昼气惰,暮气归。善用兵者,避其锐气,击其惰归,此治气者也。以治待乱,以静待哗,此治心者也。以近待远,以佚待劳,以饱待饥,以治力者也。无邀正正之旗,勿击堂堂之陈,此治变者也。故用兵之法,高陵勿向,背丘勿逆,佯北勿从,锐卒勿攻,饵兵勿食,归师勿遏,围师必阙,穷寇勿迫,此用兵之法也。


孙子曰:凡用兵之法,将受命于君,合军聚众,交和而舍,莫难于军争。
孙子说:用兵的最基本的道理,从将帅从君皇处获得出征的命令,然后从各方面纠集大军,从中各种优选,最终还是要面对与敌军决战的一刻,这也是最难的时刻,这个最难时刻这里叫【军争】。
Sun Tzu said: the most basic principle of using troops is to obtain the order of the general from the emperor, then gather the army from all aspects, and choose the best among them. At last, we have to face the moment of decisive battle with the enemy, which is also the most difficult time. This is called "military struggle".

军争之难者,以迂为直,以患为利。
军争之所以最难,就是要让事情从复杂变为简单,改变原有不利因素,变成有利因素。
The most difficult reason for the military struggle is to change things from complicated to simple, to change the original unfavorable factors into favorable ones.

故迂其途,而诱之以利,后人发,先人至,此知迂直之计者也。
(简单和复杂是相对的)我们不能让自己的事情变得更简单,可以通过利益诱惑让对手的事情变得更为复杂,这样一来我们自己虽然起步慢,但可以比对手更先完成过程,达到目标,而这一过程计算的就是用什么样方式让自己先于对手达到目标。
(simplicity and complexity are relative) we can't make our own affairs simpler. We can make the enemy's affairs more complicated through the temptation of interests. In this way, although we start slowly, we can finish the process and reach the goal before the enemy. What this process calculates is how to let ourselves reach the goal before the enemy.

故军争为利,军争为危。
所以军争存在两面性,有利益一面,有危险一面。
Therefore, there are two sides to the military struggle, one is the interests, the other is the dangers.

举军而争利,则不及;委军而争利,则辎重捐。
如果出动全军携带全部辎重去争夺先机之利,就会影响行军速度,而无法及时到达;但如果丢下辎重轻装前进,就难免损失一些物资装备。
If the whole army is dispatched to take all the baggage to fight for the advantage of the first opportunity, it will affect the speed of March, and cannot arrive in time; however, if the baggage is left to move forward lightly, some materials and equipment will inevitably be lost.

是故卷甲而趋,日夜不处,倍道兼行,百里而争利,则擒三将军,劲者先,疲者后,其法十一而至;五十里而争利,则蹶上将军,其法半至;三十里而争利,则三分之二至。
如果让将士轻装简从,昼夜不息地急行军,奔走百里去争夺先机之利,那三军将领都可能被擒,而且健壮的士卒在前,疲弱的在后,按常理最后只有十分之一的人能如期到达;如果急行五十里与敌人争夺先机之利,那先头部队必然受挫,一般也只有半数的人可以如期到达;即使是急行三十里去争夺先机之利,也只有三分之二的人能如期到达。

如果让将士轻装简从,昼夜不息地急行军去争夺先机之利。那肯定是,素质好的先到,素质不好的后到,结果大军被自己跑得七零八落,而且时间越少,到达的士兵就越少。
If the soldiers are allowed to act lightly and simply, they will march in a hurry day and night to fight for the advantage of the opportunity. It must be that those with good quality arrive first and those with poor quality arrive later. As a result, the army was scattered by itself, and the less time, the fewer soldiers arrived.

是故军无辎重则亡,无粮食则亡,无委积则亡。
所以,军队没有装备辎重便不能生存,没有粮草供应也不能生存,没有物资储备一样会灭亡。
Therefore, the army cannot survive without equipment, without food and grass supply, and without material reserves, it will perish.

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故不知诸侯之谋者,不能豫交;不知山林、险阻、沮泽之形者,不能行军;不用乡导者,不能得地利。
因此,不了解诸侯列国的战略图谋,就不能与其结盟;不了解山林、险阻和沼泽等地形分布,就不能行军作战;不使用向导,就不能掌握和利用有利的地形。
Therefore, without understanding the strategic plans of the vassal states, we can't form an alliance with them; without understanding the terrain distribution of mountains, forests, dangers and swamps, we can't March and fight; without using the guide, we can't grasp and make use of the favorable terrain.

故兵以诈立,以利动,以分合为变者也。
因此说,用兵作战是以诈谋权术为策略基础的,以是否有利来决定行动与否,并依照具体情况来灵活指挥军队集中或分散。
Therefore, the use of troops is based on the strategy of treachery, which determines whether the operation is profitable or not, and flexibly commands the concentration or dispersion of the army according to the specific situation.

故其疾如风,其徐如林,侵掠如火,不动如山,难知如阴,动如雷震。
因此军队应该快速行动时就要迅疾如风;应该缓慢行进时,队伍就要好比森林一样森严不乱;当攻城略地时要像烈火般迅猛;驻守防御时要如山岳岿然不动;当军队需要隐蔽时,就要如漫天阴霾,不可揣测;而出击时则应该像万钧雷霆,排山倒海。
Therefore, when the army should move fast, it should be as fast as the wind; when it should move slowly, it should be as strict as the forest; when it attacks cities and lands, it should be as fast as the fire; when it is garrisoned and defended, it should be as firm as the mountains; when it needs to be concealed, it should be as cloudy and unpredictable; when it is attacked, it should be like a thunderbolt, which will throw mountains and seas.

掠乡分众,廓地分利,悬权而动。
所得战利品的不论是实物还是权益,都必须要根据实际情况计算分配。
The distribution of the spoils, whether in kind or in right, must be calculated according to the actual situation.

先知迂直之计者胜,此军争之法也。
能够先于对手,计算出最优的方法,这是战争中获取胜利的基本方法。
To be able to work out the best way before the opponent is the basic way to win in the war.

《军政》曰:“言不相闻,故为金鼓;视不相见,故为旌旗。”
《军政》这本书中说:“用言语指挥听不清就用金鼓,用手势指挥看不清就用旌旗。”
"Military and political" this book says: "command with words can not hear clearly with gold drum, command with gestures can not see clearly with flags."

夫金鼓旌旗者,所以一人之耳目也。
金鼓旌旗这些工具是用来统一军队视听的。
These tools are used to unify the audio-visual of the army

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人既专一,则勇者不得独进,怯者不得独退,此用众之法也。
军队行动统一以后,那么勇敢的将士不得擅自冒进,怯懦的士兵也不能独自后退,这就是指挥大军作战的方法。
After the reunification of the army's operations, the brave soldiers should not advance without authorization, nor should the cowardly soldiers retreat alone. This is the way to command the army's operations.

故夜战多金鼓,昼战多旌旗,所以变人之耳目也。
所以,夜间作战大多用金鼓指挥,白天作战大多用旌旗指挥,这都是根据人们视听的实际情况来决定的。
Therefore, most of the night operations are conducted with gold drums, and most of the day operations are conducted with banners, which are determined according to the actual situation of people's audio-visual.

故三军可夺气,将军可夺心。
对于敌方的军队,可以挫伤其士气;对于敌军的将帅,也可以动摇他的决心,使其丧失斗志。
For the enemy's army, it can demoralize it; for the enemy's general, it can also shake his determination and make him lose his fighting spirit.

是故朝气锐,昼气惰,暮气归。
一般情况下,军队的士气在战斗初始时最为饱满旺盛,过一段时间就会减弱,到最后就会完全衰竭。
In general, the morale of the army is the most vigorous at the beginning of the battle. After a period of time, the morale of the army will weaken and eventually it will be completely exhausted.

善用兵者,避其锐气,击其惰归,此治气者也。
所以,善于用兵作战的人,总是避开敌军初始阶段的锐气,等到敌军士气懈怠衰竭时再发起攻击,这是从士气上制伏、战胜敌人的办法。
Therefore, those who are good at using troops to fight always avoid the enemy's spirit, and wait for attacking until the morale of the enemy is exhausted, This is the way to subdue and defeat the enemy in terms of morale.

以治待乱,以静待哗,此治心者也。
用严整的部队对付混乱的部队,用沉着、冷静的部队对付浮躁喧乱的部队,这就是从心理上制伏、战胜敌人的办法。
The way to subdue and defeat the enemy psychologically is to use an orderly army to deal with the confused troops and a calm and calm army to deal with the impetuous and noisy troops.

以近待远,以佚待劳,以饱待饥,以治力者也。
用就近进入战场的部队来等待长途奔袭的敌军,用休整良好的部队对付仓促疲劳的敌军;饱食的部队对付饥饿的部队,这就是从体力上制伏、战胜敌人的办法。
Use nearby troops to wait for the long-distance enemy, use well-organized troops to deal with the hasty and tired enemy, and full forces to deal with the hungry troops, which is the way to subdue and defeat the enemy physically.

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无邀正正之旗,勿击堂堂之陈,此治变者也。
不要去迎击旗帜整齐、部伍统一的军队,也不要去攻击阵容整肃、士气饱满的军队,这是灵活变化的用兵方法。
Don't fight against an army which is well-organized or clean up and high morale, that is a flexible and changeable way of using troops.

故用兵之法,高陵勿向,背丘勿逆,佯北勿从,锐卒勿攻,饵兵勿食,归师勿遏,围师必阙,穷寇勿迫,此用兵之法也。
因此,敌人占据高地时,不要仰攻;敌人背靠山丘时,不要正面进攻;敌人佯装败退时,不要追击;面对敌人的精锐部队,不要贸然攻打;面对敌人的诱兵,不要贪取;敌人撤退回国,不要阻击拦截;包围敌人时,要虚留缺口;敌人陷入绝境时,不要过分逼迫。这些都是用兵的基本原则。
Therefore, when the enemy occupies the high ground, he should not attack back; when the enemy backs on the hills, he should not attack head-on; when the enemy pretends to be defeated, he should not pursue; when facing the enemy's elite troops, he should not attack rashly; when facing the enemy's lures, he should not covet; when the enemy retreats back, he should not block and intercept; when encircling the enemy, he should leave a gap in vain; when the enemy is in a desperate situation, he should not press too hard. These are the basic principles of military employment.
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飘墨劲旅

 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:54:13 | 显示全部楼层
第八篇 九变

孙子曰:凡用兵之法,将受命于君,合军聚众,圮地无舍,衢地交合,绝地无留,围地则谋,死地则战。途有所不由,军有所不击,城有所不攻,地有所不争,君命有所不受。

故将通于九变之地利者,知用兵矣;将不通于九变之地利者,虽知地形,不能得地之利矣;治兵不知九变之术,虽知五利,不能得人之用矣。

是故智者之虑,必杂于利害。杂于利而务可信也,杂于害而患可解也。

是故屈诸侯者以害,役诸侯者以业,趋诸侯者以利。

故用兵之法,无恃其不来,恃吾有以待也;无恃其不攻,恃吾有所不可攻也。

故将有五危:必死,可杀也;必生,可虏也;忿速,可侮也;廉洁,可辱也;爱民,可烦也。凡此五者,将之过也,用兵之灾也。覆军杀将,必以五危,不可不察也。


孙子曰:凡用兵之法,将受命于君,合军聚众,圮地无舍,衢地交合,绝地无留,围地则谋,死地则战。
孙子说:用兵打仗的一般规律是,将帅领受国君的命令,征集民众,组成军队,出征后遇到山林险阻、沼泽水洼等难以通行的“圮地”,慎勿驻扎;在几国交界、四通八达的“衢地”,则注意结交邻国诸侯;在没有水草、粮食,交通困难,难以生存的“绝地”,千万不可停留;处于地势险要、道路狭窄,不易找到出路的“围地”,则要设法避免或者出奇制胜;陷入进退两难、走投无路的“死地”时,要坚决奋战而死里求生。
Sun Tzu said: the general rule of fighting with soldiers is that the generals, under the orders of the monarch, gather the people and form an army. After the expedition, they should be careful not to be stationed in places that are difficult to pass, such as mountains and forests, swamps and puddles. In places where there are several borders and all directions, they should pay attention to making friends with the neighboring princes. In places where there are no water, grass, food, transportation difficulties and difficult to survive, there are thousands of "Jedi" Never stay in the "encirclement" where the terrain is dangerous, the road is narrow, and it is not easy to find a way out, we should try to avoid or win by surprise; when we fall into the "dead land" where there is a dilemma and there is no way to go, we should resolutely fight to survive.

途有所不由,军有所不击,城有所不攻,地有所不争,君命有所不受。
有的道路不要去走,有的敌军可以不去阻击,有的城池可以不去攻克,有的地盘可以不去争夺,甚至国君某些不适当的命令也可以不接受。
Some roads should not be taken, some enemy forces should not block, some cities should not be conquered, some territories should not be contested, and even some inappropriate orders of the monarch should not be accepted.

故将通于九变之地利者,知用兵矣;将不通于九变之地利者,虽知地形,不能得地之利矣;治兵不知九变之术,虽知五利,不能得人之用矣。
因此,将帅若能精通上述策略的运用及其利弊,就算懂得如何用兵了;将帅若不能通晓上述策略的运用及其不利后果,即使是熟悉地形,也不能发挥其有利作用。统帅指挥军队而不通晓上述策略,纵然知道五种地形的利弊,也还是不能充分发挥全军将士的战斗力。
Therefore, if the general is proficient in the use of the above strategies and their advantages and disadvantages, he will know how to use the troops; if the general is not proficient in the use of the above strategies and their adverse consequences, even if he is familiar with the terrain, he will not play its beneficial role. The commander in command of the army is not familiar with the above-mentioned strategies. Even though he knows the advantages and disadvantages of the five terrains, he cannot give full play to the combat effectiveness of the whole army.

是故智者之虑,必杂于利害。杂于利而务可信也,杂于害而患可解也。
所以,高明的将领考虑问题时,必定兼顾到利弊两个方面。在不利的情况下充分考虑到有利的因素,战事就可以顺利进行;在有利的情况下充分考虑到不利的因素,各种可能发生的祸患就可以预先排除。
Therefore, when a wise general considers a problem, he must take both advantages and disadvantages into account. If the favorable factors are fully taken into account in an unfavorable situation, the war can proceed smoothly; if the unfavorable factors are fully taken into account in an advantageous situation, all possible disasters can be eliminated in advance.

是故屈诸侯者以害,役诸侯者以业,趋诸侯者以利。
所以,要使诸侯屈服,就要对其威逼;要使诸侯出力,就要给他制造事端;要使诸侯自动前来投靠,就要用一些小利去引诱他。
Therefore, if you want to make the feudal princes submit, you must intimidate them; if you want to make the feudal princes work, you must make trouble for them; if you want to make the feudal princes come to join you automatically, you must lure them with some small profits.

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故用兵之法,无恃其不来,恃吾有以待也;无恃其不攻,恃吾有所不可攻也。
所以,用兵打仗的一般原则是,不要侥幸指望敌人不来进犯,而要依靠自己做好了充分准备,严阵以待;不要侥幸指望敌人不来攻击,而要依靠自己坚不可摧的防御,使敌人不敢进攻。
Therefore, the general principle of fighting with soldiers is not to rely on the enemy's luck not to invade, but to rely on oneself to make full preparation and wait for the enemy to attack; not to rely on the enemy's luck not to attack, but to rely on their own invincible defense, so that the enemy dare not attack.

故将有五危:必死,可杀也;必生,可虏也;忿速,可侮也;廉洁,可辱也;爱民,可烦也。
因此,将帅有五种弱点是致命的:勇而无谋,只知硬拼,就有可能被诱杀;临阵畏怯,贪生怕死,就有可能被俘虏;浮躁易怒,刚愎求成,就有可能受敌人的侮辱激怒而中计;过分廉洁好名,矜于名节,就有可能被流言中伤而落入圈套;过于溺爱民众,仁义至忠,就有可能被敌人的暴行烦扰而陷于被动。
there are five kinds of weaknesses of generals that are fatal,
1. To be brave but have no plans would be trapped and killed.
2. Timidity would be captived
3. Impetuous would be angry to be insult
4. Pursue fame would be slandered by gossip
5. The irresolute would be confused by the riot that enemy makes.

凡此五者,将之过也,用兵之灾也。
以上这五种情况,是将帅的性格大忌,也是用兵的灾难。
The above five situations are not only taboos of the general's character, but also disasters of using troops.

覆军杀将,必以五危,不可不察也。
全军覆没、将帅被杀,都是由这五种危险因素引起的,因此,不能不警惕这五种性格缺陷。
The total annihilation of the army and the killing of generals are all caused by these five risk factors. Therefore, we cannot fail to be alert to these five personality defects.
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飘墨劲旅

 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 20:58:41 | 显示全部楼层
第九篇 行军

孙子曰:凡处军相敌,绝山依谷,视生处高,战隆无登,此处山之军也。绝水必远水。客绝水而来,勿迎之于水内,令半渡而击之,利;欲战者,无附于水而迎客;视生处高,无迎水流,此处水上之军也。绝斥泽,唯亟去无留;若交军于斥泽之中,必依水草而背众树,此处斥泽之军也。平陆处易,右背高,前死后生,此处平陆之军也。凡此四军之利,黄帝之所以胜四帝也。

凡军好高而恶下,贵阳而贱阴。养生而处实,军无百疾,是谓必胜。丘陵堤防,必处其阳而右背之,此兵之利,地之助也。上雨,水沫至,欲涉者,待其定也。凡地有绝涧、天井、天牢、天罗、天陷、天隙,必亟去之,勿近也。吾远之,敌近之;吾迎之,敌背之。军旁有险阻、潢井、葭苇、林木、蘙荟者,必谨覆索之,此伏奸之所处也。

敌近而静者,恃其险也;远而挑战者,欲人之进也;其所居易者,利也;众树动者,来也;众草多障者,疑也;鸟起者,伏也;兽骇者,覆也;尘高而锐者,车来也;卑而广者,徒来也;散而条达者,樵采也;少而往来者,营军也;辞卑而益备者,进也;辞强而进驱者,退也;轻车先出居其侧者,陈也;无约而请和者,谋也;奔走而陈兵者,期也;半进半退者,诱也;杖而立者,饥也;汲而先饮者,渴也;见利而不进者,劳也;鸟集者,虚也;夜呼者,恐也;军扰者,将不重也;旌旗动者,乱也;吏怒者,倦也;杀马肉食者,军无粮也;悬缻(25)不返其舍者,穷寇也;谆谆翕翕(26),徐与人言者,失众也;数赏者,窘也(27);数罚者,困也(28);先暴而后畏其众者,不精之至也;来委谢者,欲休息也。兵怒而相迎,久而不合,又不相去,必谨察之。

兵非贵益多也,唯无武进,足以并力、料敌、取人而已。夫唯无虑而易敌者,必擒于人。

卒未亲附而罚之,则不服,不服则难用也。卒已亲附而罚不行,则不可用也。故令之以文,齐之以武,是谓必取。令素行以教其民,则民服;令素不行以教其民,则民不服。令素行者,与众相得也。


孙子曰:凡处军相敌,绝山依谷,视生处高,战隆无登,此处山之军也。
孙子说:在各种不同地形上处置军队和观察判断敌情时,应该注意:通过山地,必须依靠有水草的山谷,驻扎在居高向阳的地方,敌人占领高地,不要仰攻,这是在山地上对军队的处置原则。
Sun Tzu said: when dealing with the army and observing and judging the enemy's situation on different terrains, we should pay attention to the following: through the mountains, we must rely on the valleys with water and grass, and be stationed in the high sunny areas. The enemy occupies the highlands and does not attack on the back. This is the principle of dealing with the army in the mountains.

绝水必远水。客绝水而来,勿迎之于水内,令半渡而击之,利;欲战者,无附于水而迎客;视生处高,无迎水流,此处水上之军也。
横渡江河,应远离水流驻扎,敌人渡水来战,不要在江河中迎击,而要等它渡过一半时再攻击,这样较为有利。如果要同敌人决战,不要紧靠水边列阵;在江河地带扎营,也要居高向阳,不要面迎水流,这是在江河地带上对军队处置的原则。
When crossing a river, we should stay far away from the current. When the enemy comes to fight, we should not fight in the river, but wait for it to cross half before attacking. This is more advantageous. If you want to fight the enemy, don't stand in line close to the water; if you want to camp in a river area, you should also stay high and sunny, and don't face the current. This is the principle of handling the army in a river area

绝斥泽,唯亟去无留;若交军于斥泽之中,必依水草而背众树,此处斥泽之军也。
通过盐碱沼泽地带,要迅速离开,不要逗留;如果同敌军相遇于盐碱沼泽地带,那就必须靠近水草而背靠树林,这是在盐碱沼泽地带上对军队处置的原则。
Through the salt marshes, you should leave quickly and do not stay; if you meet the enemy in the salt marshes, you must be close to the water and grass and back to the forest, which is the principle of handling the army in the salt marshes.

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平陆处易,右背高,前死后生,此处平陆之军也。
在平原上应占领开阔地域,而侧翼要依托高地,前低后高。这是在平原地带上对军队处置的原则。
The open area should be occupied on the plain, and the flank should rely on the high ground, the front low and the back high. This is the principle of handling the army in the plain.

凡此四军之利,黄帝之所以胜四帝也。
以上四中“处军”原则的好处,就是黄帝之所以能战胜其他四帝的原因。
The advantage of the principle of "serving the army" in the above four middle schools is the reason why the HuangDi was able to defeat the other four emperors.

凡军好高而恶下,贵阳而贱阴。
大凡驻军总是喜欢干燥的高地,避开潮湿的洼地;重视向阳之地,避开阴暗之地;靠近水草丰茂、军需供应充足的地方。
Every garrison always likes dry highlands and wet depressions; pays attention to sunny areas and dark areas; and is close to places with abundant water and grass and sufficient military supplies.

养生而处实,军无百疾,是谓必胜。
安营在地势高、平实的地方将士百病不生,这样胜利才有保证。
Encampment in a high, flat place where the soldiers will not be sick, so that victory can be guaranteed.

丘陵堤防,必处其阳而右背之,此兵之利,地之助也。
在丘陵堤防地带行军,必须要占据向阳的一面,并且主要侧翼也要背靠向阳的一面。这些措施之所以对用兵作战有利,是由于充分发挥了地形的辅助作用。
To march in the hilly and dike area, we must occupy the sunny side, and the main flank must also lean on the sunny side. The reason why these measures are beneficial to the use of troops is that they give full play to the auxiliary role of the terrain.

上雨,水沫至,欲涉者,待其定也。
上游降雨,突发洪水,不要涉水过河,应等水势稳定之后再行动。
Upstream rainfall, sudden flood, do not wade across the river, should wait until the water is stable before action.

凡地有绝涧、天井、天牢、天罗、天陷、天隙,必亟去之,勿近也。
凡是遇到或通过“绝涧”“天井”“天牢”“天罗”、“天陷”“天隙”这几种地形,必须迅速离开,千万不要停留。
If you encounter or pass the "juejian", "patio", "dungeon", "Tianluo", "Tiangeng" and "tiangap", you must leave quickly and never stay.

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吾远之,敌近之;吾迎之,敌背之。
我军要远离这些地形,而让敌人去靠近它;我军应面向这些地形,而让敌人背靠它。
We should keep away from these terrain and let the enemy approach it; we should face these terrain and let the enemy lean against it.

军旁有险阻、潢井、葭苇、林木、蘙荟者,必谨覆索之,此伏奸之所处也。
驻军附近若有山险水阻、坑坎沼泽、茂盛的芦苇和浓密的森林,必须反复仔细搜索,这些都是敌人可能设下埋伏和隐藏奸细的地方。
If there are mountains, rivers, marshes, lush reeds and dense forests near the garrison, we must search carefully and repeatedly. These are places where the enemy may lay ambush and hide spies.

敌近而静者,恃其险也;
敌人逼近而能保持安静,是因为占据着险要地形;
占据有利和险要的地形,才能让部队在敌人逼近的时候保持镇静。
Only by occupying favorable and dangerous terrain can the troops keep calm when the enemy approaches.

远而挑战者,欲人之进也;
远处的敌人而来向我们挑衅,其目的是引诱我军前进;
The enemy in the distance came to challenge us with the purpose of luring our army forward;

其所居易者,利也;
敌人不抢占险要地形而在平地驻扎,这其中肯定有对其有利之处;
无论敌人占据什么地形,其中肯定有他们认为对自己有利的地方
Whatever terrain the enemy occupies, there must be something they think is good for them

众树动者,来也;众草多障者,疑也;
许多树木摇动,是敌人伐木开路,隐蔽来袭;草丛中有许多障碍物,是敌人布下的疑阵;
Many trees are shaking, and the enemy is cutting wood to open the way and concealing the attack;There are many obstacles in the grass, which are the doubts set by the enemy;

鸟起者,伏也;兽骇者,覆也;
群鸟惊飞,是下面有伏兵;野兽惊骇奔逃,是敌人大举突袭;
The birds are flying. There are ambush below;The wild animals run away in terror, which is a large-scale surprise attack by the enemy;

尘高而锐者,车来也;卑而广者,徒来也;
尘土高扬而锐直,是敌人的战车大举驰来;尘土低矮而宽广,是敌人的步兵在行进;
The dust is high and straight, and the enemy's chariots are coming in full swing;The dust is low and broad, and the enemy's infantry are marching;

散而条达者,樵采也;少而往来者,营军也;
尘土疏散飞扬,是敌人正在曳柴而走;尘土较少且时起时落,是敌人正在安营扎寨。
The dust is dispersing and flying, and the enemy is hauling firewood away;There is less dust and it rises and falls. The enemy is setting up camp.

辞卑而益备者,进也;
敌人的使者措辞谦卑却又在加紧备战的,是准备进攻;
The enemy's emissaries, who are humble in their words but are intensifying their preparations for war, are ready to attack.

辞强而进驱者,退也;
措辞强硬而又摆出进攻架势的,则是准备撤退;
If the emissaries of the enemy are tough in their words and put on an offensive posture, they are ready to retreat;

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轻车先出居其侧者,陈也;
敌人的轻车先出动,部署在两翼的,是在布兵列阵;
The enemy's light chariots, which were deployed on both wings first, were arrayed;

无约而请和者,谋也;
敌人尚未受挫而主动请求讲和的,是另有阴谋;
If the enemy has not yet been defeated and asks for peace, there is another plot;

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奔走而陈兵者,期也;
急速奔跑并排兵列阵的,是企图约期同我军决战;
Those who run fast and line up are trying to make an appointment to fight our army;

半进半退者,诱也;
欲进不进、欲退不退的,是企图引诱我军中计。
Those who want to advance or retreat are trying to lure our army into a trap.

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杖而立者,饥也;
敌兵斜倚着兵器站立,是饥饿的表现;
It is a sign of hunger that enemy soldiers stand leaning on their weapons;

汲而先饮者,渴也;
供水兵打水自己先喝,是干渴的表现;
Water supply soldiers drink water first, which is a sign of thirst;

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见利而不进者,劳也;
见有利可图而不进兵夺取,是疲劳的表现;
It is a sign of fatigue to see that it is profitable but not to enter the army to capture;

鸟集者,虚也;
营寨上空飞鸟聚集,说明下面是空营;
Birds gather over the camp, indicating that the following is the empty camp;

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夜呼者,恐也;
敌人夜间惊叫,是恐慌的表现;
The cry of the enemy at night is a sign of panic;

军扰者,将不重也;
敌营惊扰纷乱,是敌帅没有威严的表现;
The disturbance of the enemy camp is a sign that the commander-in-chief has no authority;

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旌旗动者,乱也;
敌军旌旗摇动不整,是军纪不严队伍混乱的表现;
The irregular movement of the enemy's banners is a sign of the confusion of the troops with lax military discipline;

吏怒者,倦也;
敌人军官易怒,是军队疲惫的表现;
The irritability of enemy officers is a sign of military fatigue;

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杀马肉食者,军无粮也;
敌人杀马吃肉,是缺乏粮食的表现;
The enemy's killing horses and eating meat is a manifestation of lack of food;

悬缻不返其舍者,穷寇也;
炊具悬置不用,士兵不回营房休息的,是要拼死的穷寇;
If the cooking utensils are not in use, and the soldiers do not return to the barracks for rest, they are the poor bandits who will fight to death;

谆谆翕翕,徐与人言者,失众也;
敌帅低声下气同部属讲话,说明他已丧失人心;
The enemy commander spoke to his subordinates in a low voice, which showed that he had lost his heart;

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数赏者,窘也;
不断犒赏士卒,表明敌军处境窘困;
The constant reward of soldiers shows that the enemy is in a difficult situation;

数罚者,困也;
不断惩罚部属,说明敌军无计可施;
Punishing his subordinates constantly shows that the enemy has nothing to do;

先暴而后畏其众者,不精之至也;
先粗暴凶狠后又害怕部属的,是最不精明的将帅;
The least astute general is the one who is rude and ferocious and then afraid of his subordinates;

来委谢者,欲休息也。
敌人派使者来送礼言好是想休兵息战;
The enemy sent messengers to send gifts, saying that they wanted to cease the war;

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13
兵怒而相迎,久而不合,又不相去,必谨察之。
敌人乘怒而来,但久不交锋又不撤退的,必须要谨慎观察他的企图了。
If the enemy comes in anger but does not fight or retreat for a long time, we must observe carefully his attempts.

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兵非贵益多也,唯无武进,足以并力、料敌、取人而已。
作战不在于兵力越多越好,只要不轻敌冒进,能够集中兵力、判明敌情、取得部下的信任和支持,那就足够了。
Fighting does not depend on the more troops, the better. As long as we do not underestimate the enemy's rash advance, we can concentrate our forces, judge the enemy's situation, and gain the trust and support of our subordinates.

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夫唯无虑而易敌者,必擒于人。
那种既没有深谋远虑,又自负轻敌的人,必定会被敌人俘虏。
Those who are neither farsighted nor conceited are bound to be captured by the enemy.

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卒未亲附而罚之,则不服,不服则难用也。
士卒尚未亲近归附就执行惩罚,那他们便会不服,不服就很难指挥
If the soldiers are punished without first-hand experience, they will certainly refuse to accept the punishment. In this way, it will be difficult to command these soldiers

卒已亲附而罚不行,则不可用也。
士卒已经亲近归附,但如果不执行军纪军法,也无法指挥他们作战
If the soldiers know right and wrong by themselves, but they still don't punish them after they make mistakes, the law will be useless and these soldiers will not be able to win the battle.

故令之以文,齐之以武,是谓必取。
所以,要用怀柔宽仁的政策使他们思想统一,用军纪军法使他们行动一致,这样必定会取得士卒的敬畏和拥戴。
Therefore, we should use the policy of being gentle and lenient to unify their thoughts, and use military discipline and military law to make them act in accordance with each other. In this way, we will surely gain the respect and support of the soldiers.

令素行以教其民,则民服;令素不行以教其民,则民不服。
平时严格贯彻执行法令,士卒就能养成服从法令的习惯;如果平时法令得不到贯彻执行,士卒就会养成不服从法令的习惯。
If the laws and regulations are strictly implemented in peacetime, the soldiers can develop the habit of obeying the laws; if the laws and regulations are not implemented, the soldiers will develop the habit of disobeying the laws.

令素行者,与众相得也。
平时的法令能得到贯彻执行,这表明将帅与士卒之间相处融洽,互相信任。
The usual laws and regulations can be implemented, which shows that the generals and soldiers get along well and trust each other.
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发表于 2020-11-30 21:11:28 | 显示全部楼层
哈,把《孙子兵法》翻译成英文,耳朵翻得好
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 21:45:50 | 显示全部楼层
第十篇 地形

孙子曰:地形有通者,有挂者,有支者,有隘者,有险者,有远者。我可以往,彼可以来,曰通。通形者,先居高阳,利粮道,以战则利。可以往,难以返,曰挂。挂形(3)者,敌无备,出而胜之;敌若有备,出而不胜,难以返,不利。我出而不利,彼出而不利,曰支。支形者,敌虽利我,我无出也;引而去之,令敌半出而击之,利。隘形者,我先居之,必盈之以待敌;若敌先居之,盈而勿从,不盈而从之。险形者,我先居之,必居高阳以待敌;若敌先居之,引而去之,勿从也。远形者,势均,难以挑战,战而不利(7)。凡此六者,地之道也;将之至任,不可不察也。

故兵有走者,有弛者,有陷者,有崩者,有乱者,有北者。凡此六者,非天地之灾,将之过也。夫势均,以一击十,曰走;卒强吏弱,曰弛;吏强卒弱,曰陷;大吏怒而不服,遇敌怼而自战,将不知其能,曰崩;将弱不严,教道不明,吏卒无常,陈兵纵横,曰乱;将不能料敌,以少合众,以弱击强,兵无选锋,曰北。凡此六者,败之道也;将之至任,不可不察也。

夫地形者,兵之助也。料敌制胜,计险厄远近,上将之道也。知此而用战者必胜,不知此而用战者必败。

故战道必胜,主曰无战,必战可也;战道不胜,主曰必战,无战可也。故进不求名,退不避罪,唯民是保,而利合于主,国之宝也。

视卒如婴儿,故可与之赴深溪;视卒如爱子,故可与之俱死。爱而不能令,厚而不能使,乱而不能治,譬如骄子,不可用也。

知吾卒之可以击,而不知敌之不可击,胜之半也;知敌之可击,而不知吾卒之不可以击,胜之半也;知敌之可击,知吾卒之可以击,而不知地形之不可以战,胜之半也。故知兵者,动而不迷,举而不穷。

故曰:知彼知己,胜乃不殆;知天知地,胜乃可全。

地形

孙子曰:地形有通者,有挂者,有支者,有隘者,有险者,有远者。
孙子说:地形有“通”“挂”“支”“隘”“险”“远”六种。
Sun Tzu said: there are six kinds of terrain, including "Tong", "Gua", "Zhi", "Ai", "Dang" and "Yuan".

我可以往,彼可以来,曰通。
我军可以去,敌军也可以来的地形,称作“通”。
The terrain where our army can go and the enemy can come is called "Tong".

通形者,先居高阳,利粮道,以战则利。
在“通”类地形上,应抢先占据开阔向阳的高地,并保持粮道畅通,这样作战就有利。
In the "Tong" terrain, we should occupy the open and sunny highlands first, and keep the grain passage unblocked, so that the battle will be beneficial.

可以往,难以返,曰挂。
那些可以前往,但难以返回的地形,称作“挂”。
The terrain that is accessible but difficult to return to is called "hanging."

挂形者,敌无备,出而胜之;敌若有备,出而不胜,难以返,不利。
在挂形地域,假如敌人没有提前防备,我军就能突击取胜;假如敌人有所防备,出击不能取胜,加上难以回师,这种地形就会不利。
If the enemy is not prepared in advance, our army will be able to win by surprise in the hanging area; if the enemy is prepared, the attack can not win, and it is difficult to return to the army, this terrain will be disadvantageous.

我出而不利,彼出而不利,曰支。
我军出击不利,敌军也出击不利的地域,称作“支”。
It is called "branch" when our army is not good at attacking and the enemy is also attacking unfavorable areas.

27
支形者,敌虽利我,我无出也;引而去之,令敌半出而击之,利。
在“支”型地域,即使敌人以利相诱,我军也千万不要出击,而应该率军假装退却,诱使敌人出击到一半时再回师反击,这样才会比较有利。
In the "zhi" type area, even if the enemy lures each other with advantages, our army must not attack. Instead, we should lead the army to pretend to retreat, and lure the enemy to return to the division to fight back when the enemy is halfway out of the attack.

隘形者,我先居之,必盈之以待敌;若敌先居之,盈而勿从,不盈而从之。
在“隘”型地域,我军应该抢先占领,并用重兵封锁隘口,等待敌军的到来;如果敌军抢先占领了隘口,并有重兵把守,我军就不能进攻;如果敌军没有用重兵据守隘口,那我军还可以进攻。
In the "ai" area, our army should seize the pass first and block the pass with heavy troops to wait for the arrival of the enemy; if the enemy takes the pass first and has heavy guard, our army can not attack; if the enemy does not use heavy troops to defend the pass, then our army can still attack.

险形者,我先居之,必居高阳以待敌;若敌先居之,引而去之,勿从也。
在“险”型地域,如果我军抢先占领,就必须控制开阔向阳的高地,等待敌军来犯;如果敌军已抢先占据了有利地形,我军就应该主动撤退,千万不要进攻。
In "xian" areas, if our army takes the lead, we must control the open and sunny highlands and wait for the enemy to invade; if the enemy has occupied the favorable terrain first, our army should take the initiative to retreat and never attack.

远形者,势均,难以挑战,战而不利。
在“远”型地域,敌我双方实力相当时,这个时候就不宜挑战,如果勉强出战,就会不利。
In "yuan" areas, when the strength of both sides is equal, it is not appropriate to challenge at this time. If we are forced to fight, it will be disadvantageous. If we do not study the above six points, we should not make full use of them.

凡此六者,地之道也;将之至任,不可不察也。
以上这六点,都是利用了地形的原则,也是将帅的重大责任所在,不能不认真考察研究。
If we do not study the above six points, we should not make full use of them.

故兵有走者,有弛者,有陷者,有崩者,有乱者,有北者。
军队作战失利有“走”“弛”“陷”“崩”“乱”“北”六种情况。
There are six kinds of situations in which the army loses in battle, such as "zou", "chi", "xian", "beng", "luan" and "bei".

凡此六者,非天地之灾,将之过也。
这六种情况的发生,不是由于天时地理等自然条件造成的,而是由将帅的过失所造成的。
The occurrence of these six situations is not caused by natural conditions such as weather, time and geography, but by the fault of the general.

----------------------------------------------------------------------
3
夫势均,以一击十,曰走;
双方实力相当,却要以一击十而导致失败的,叫作“走”。
If the two sides have the same strength but want to defeat with one strike of ten, it is called "zou"

卒强吏弱,曰弛;
士卒强悍,军官却懦弱,指挥不当而导致失败的,叫作“弛”。
If the soldiers are tough, but the officers are cowardly. for this reason, the command is improper and leads to failure, it is called "Chi".

吏强卒弱,曰陷;
军官强悍而士卒怯懦,战斗力差而导致失败的,叫作“陷”。
Officers who are tough and soldiers are cowardly and whose combat effectiveness is poor and lead to failure is called "xian".

大吏怒而不服,遇敌怼而自战,将不知其能,曰崩;
副将有怨仇而不服从指挥,遇到敌人擅自出战,主将又不了解他们能力,因而失败的,叫作“崩”。
A vice general who has a grudge and disobeys his command and fails to attack the enemy without authorization and the chief general does not understand their abilities is called "beng".

将弱不严,教道不明,吏卒无常,陈兵纵横,曰乱;
由于将帅懦弱缺乏威严,治军没有章法,官兵关系紧张,列兵布阵杂乱无章,因而致败的,叫作“乱”。
A general who is weak and lacks dignity, runs the army without rules and regulations, has a tense relationship between officers and soldiers, and the soldiers are arrayed in a disorderly way, which leads to the defeat.

将不能料敌,以少合众,以弱击强,兵无选锋,曰北。
将帅不能正确判断敌情,以少击众,以弱击强,作战又没有精锐先锋部队,因而落败的,叫作“北”。
Those who misses judge the enemy's situation, attack the masses with a small number of people and attack the strong with the weak, and there are no elite vanguard troops in the battle, and thus are defeated, they are called "bei".

凡此六者,败之道也;将之至任,不可不察也。
凡遇到上述的六种情况,作战基本没有胜算。避开上述的情况,就是指挥官职责所在,不能不掉以轻心,一定要认真考察研究。
In any of the above-mentioned six situations, there is no chance of winning the battle. To avoid the above-mentioned situation is the duty of the commander. it should be taken it very carefully.

-----------------------------

夫地形者,兵之助也。料敌制胜,计险厄远近,上将之道也。
地形是用兵作战的重要辅助条件。正确判断敌情,争取克敌制胜的主动权,考察地形险易,计算路程的远近,这些都是高明的将帅必须懂得的道理和掌握的法则。
Terrain is an important auxiliary condition for military operations. To correctly judge the enemy's situation, strive for the initiative to defeat the enemy, investigate the terrain, calculate the distance of the distance, these are the principles that a wise general must understand and master.

知此而用战者必胜,不知此而用战者必败。
明白这些道理并用于指挥作战,必定能够获胜,反之则必定失败。
If we understand these principles and apply them to command operations, we will surely win; otherwise, we will surely fail.

故战道必胜,主曰无战,必战可也;战道不胜,主曰必战,无战可也。
因此,根据一般作战规律,如有必胜把握,即使国君不让打,主将也可以坚持去打;如果根据分析判断没有必胜把握,即使国君坚持要打,主将也要拒绝出战。
Therefore, according to the general operational law, if there is a certain degree of certainty, even if the monarch refuses to let him fight, the commander can still insist on fighting; if according to the analysis and judgment, even if the monarch insists on fighting, the commander will refuse to go to war.

故进不求名,退不避罪,唯民是保,而利合于主,国之宝也。
因此,身为将帅,进攻不是为了谋求胜利之名,撤退而不惧怕承担失利的罪责,只求保全百姓,符合国家利益,这样的将帅才是国家的宝贵财富。
Therefore, as a general, the purpose of attacking is not to seek the name of victory, retreat without fear of bearing the responsibility for failure, but only to protect the people and conform to the national interests. Such a general is the precious wealth of the country.

视卒如婴儿,故可与之赴深溪;视卒如爱子,故可与之俱死。
对待士卒像对待婴儿那样百般呵护,士卒就能与将帅共患难;对待士卒像对待亲生儿子那样关怀疼爱,士卒便能与将帅同生共死。
If the soldiers are treated as if they were babies, they would be able to share weal and woe with the generals; if they were treated as if they were their own sons, they would be able to live and die together with the generals.

爱而不能令,厚而不能使,乱而不能治,譬如骄子,不可用也。
如果一味溺爱士卒却不用法令约束他们,厚待士卒而不使用他们,士卒违法乱纪又不惩治他们,那么,士卒就如同娇惯的孩子,是不能用来作战的。
If we indulge in the love of soldiers, but do not restrain them by laws and regulations, treat them favorably without using them, and the commander losses of binding force, then soldiers, like spoiled children, cannot be used for combat.

知吾卒之可以击,而不知敌之不可击,胜之半也;知敌之可击,而不知吾卒之不可以击,胜之半也;知敌之可击,知吾卒之可以击,而不知地形之不可以战,胜之半也。
只了解自己的军队,而不了解敌人的情况,取胜的可能性只有一半;只了解敌军的情况,而不了解自己的军队,取胜的可能性也只有一半;既了解敌人的情况,也了解自己的军队,但不了解地形不利于作战,取胜的可能性同样只有一半。
If you only know your own army, but not the enemy's situation, you will have only half the chance of winning; if you only know the enemy's situation but not your own army, you will have only half the chance to win; if you know both the enemy's situation and your own army, but not the terrain, it is not conducive to combat, so the possibility of winning is also only half.

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故知兵者,动而不迷,举而不穷。
所以,真正懂得用兵的将帅,行动起来不会迷惑,战术也能变化无穷。
Therefore, a general who really knows how to use troops will not be confused and his tactics will be changeable.

故曰:知彼知己,胜乃不殆;知天知地,胜乃可全。
所以说:了解敌人,也了解自己,才能克敌制胜;如果又了解天时、地利,胜利就能万无一失了。
Therefore, if we understand the enemy and ourselves, we can defeat the enemy and win; if we understand the favorable time and place, we can win without any loss.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 21:52:16 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 东方耳 于 2020-11-30 21:53 编辑

第十一篇 九地

孙子曰:用兵之法,有散地,有轻地,有争地,有交地,有衢地,有重地,有圮地,有围地,有死地。诸侯自战其地者,为散地。入人之地而不深者,为轻地。我得亦利,彼得亦利者,为争地。我可以往,彼可以来者,为交地。诸侯之地三属,先至而得天下之众者,为衢地。入人之地深,背城邑多者,为重地。山林,险阻、沮泽,凡难行之道者,为圮地。所由入者隘,所从归者迂,彼寡可以击吾之众者,为围地。疾战则存,不疾战则亡者,为死地。是故散地则无战,轻地则无止,争地则无攻,交地则无绝,衢地则合交,重地则掠,圮地则行,围地则谋,死地则战。

所谓古之善用兵者,能使敌人前后不相及,众寡不相恃,贵贱不相救,上下不相收,卒离而不集,兵合而不齐。合于利而动,不合于利而止。敢问:“敌众整而将来,待之若何?”曰:“先夺其所爱,则听矣。”兵之情主速,乘人之不及,由不虞之道,攻其所不戒也。

凡为客之道,深入则专,主人不克;掠于饶野,三军足食。谨养而勿劳,并气积力;运兵计谋,为不可测。投之无所往,死且不北。死焉不得,士人尽力。兵士甚陷则不惧,无所往则固,深入则拘,不得已则斗。是故其兵不修而戒,不求而得,不约而亲,不令而信。禁祥去疑,至死无所之。吾士无余财,非恶货也;无余命,非恶寿也。令发之日,士卒坐者涕沾襟,偃卧者涕交颐,投之无所往者,诸、刿之勇也。

故善用兵者,譬如率然。率然者,常山之蛇也。击其首则尾至,击其尾则首至,击其中则首尾俱至。敢问:“兵可使如率然乎?”曰:“可。”夫吴人与越人相恶也,当其同舟济而遇风,其相救也如左右手。是故方马埋轮,未足恃也;齐勇若一,政之道也;刚柔皆得,地之理也。故善用兵者,携手若使一人,不得已也。

将军之事,静以幽,正以治。能愚士卒之耳目,使之无知;易其事,革其谋,使人无识;易其居,迂其途,使人不得虑。帅与之期,如登高而去其梯,帅与之深入诸侯之地,而发其机,焚舟破釜。若驱群羊,驱而往,驱而来,莫知所之。聚三军之众,投之于险,此谓将军之事也。九地之变,屈伸之利,人情之理,不可不察也。

凡为客之道,深则专,浅则散。去国越境而师者,绝地也;四通者,衢地也;入深者,重地也;入浅者,轻地也;背固前隘者,围地也;无所往者,死地也。是故散地,吾将一其志;轻地,吾将使之属;争地,吾将趋其后;交地,吾将谨其守;衢地,吾将固其结;重地,吾将继其食;圮地,吾将进其途;围地,吾将塞其阙;死地,吾将示之以不活。故兵之情:围则御,不得已则斗,过则从。

是故不知诸侯之谋者,不能预交;不知山林、险阻、沮泽之形者,不能行军;不用乡导者,不能得地利。四五者,不知一,非霸、王之兵也。夫霸、王之兵,伐大国,则其众不得聚;威加于敌,则其交不得合。是故不争天下之交,不养天下之权,信己之私,威加于敌,故其城可拔,其国可隳。

施无法之赏,悬无政之令。犯三军之众,若使一人。犯之以事,勿告以言;犯之以利,勿告以害。投之亡地然后存,陷之死地然后生。夫众陷于害,然后能为胜败。

故为兵之事,在于顺详敌之意,并敌一向,千里杀将,此谓巧能成事者也。

是故政举之日,夷关折符,无通其使;厉于廊庙之上,以诛其事。敌人开阖,必亟入之。先其所爱,微与之期。践墨随敌,以决战事。是故始如处女,敌人开户;后如脱兔,敌不及拒。

九地

孙子曰:用兵之法,有散地,有轻地,有争地,有交地,有衢地,有重地,有圮地,有围地,有死地。
孙子说:按照用兵的一般规律,战场的地形种类有“散地”“轻地”“争地”“交地”“衢地”“重地”“圮地”“围地”“死地”九种。
Sun Tzu said: according to the general law of military use, there are nine types of terrain in the battlefield: scattered, light, contested, intersected, Qudi, heavily damaged, besieged and dead

诸侯自战其地者,为散地。
诸侯在自己领地内作战的战地,叫作“散地”
The battlefield where the feudal princes fight in their own territory is called "scattered area"

入人之地而不深者,为轻地。
进入敌境不远的战地,叫作“轻地”
A battlefield not far from the enemy's territory is called "light ground"

我得亦利,彼得亦利者,为争地。
我军先占领于我有利,敌军先占领于敌有利的战地,叫作“争地”
It is called "contending for territory" that our army first occupies the favorable battlefield of our country and the enemy first occupies the favorable battlefield of the enemy

我可以往,彼可以来者,为交地。
我军可以前往,敌军也可以前来的战地,叫作“交地”
The battlefield where our army can go and the enemy can come is called "Jiaodi"

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诸侯之地三属,先至而得天下之众者,为衢地。
与多国毗邻,谁先到就可以获得诸侯列国援助的战地,叫作“衢地”
"Qudi" is a battlefield adjacent to many countries, and the one who arrives first can get assistance from the vassal states

入人之地深,背城邑多者,为重地。
深入敌国腹地,背靠敌人众多城邑的战地,叫作“重地”
The battlefield, which goes deep into the enemy's hinterland and is backed by numerous enemy cities, is called "heavy area"

山林,险阻、沮泽,凡难行之道者,为圮地。
山高水险、林木森严、池沼错综,难于通行的战地,叫作“圮地”
The battlefield, which is difficult to pass through due to its high mountains and rivers, dense forests and complicated ponds, is called "ruined land"

所由入者隘,所从归者迂,彼寡可以击吾之众者,为围地。
行进的道路狭窄,退兵的道路迂远,敌军能以少击众的战地,叫作“围地”
The road of marching is narrow, and the way of retreating is circuitous. The battlefield where the enemy can attack fewer people is called "Besieged area"

疾战则存,不疾战则亡者,为死地。
奋起速战就能生存,不奋起速战就会全军覆灭的战地,叫作“死地”
"dead land" is where does not have any other choose, fight fast or destroyed only.

是故散地则无战,轻地则无止,争地则无攻,交地则无绝,衢地则合交,重地则掠,圮地则行,围地则谋,死地则战。
因此,处于散地不宜作战,处于轻地不宜停留,处于争地不要勉强强攻,处于交地要保证队伍能相互策应而不被截断,进入衢地应该主动结交诸侯,深入重地要掠取军需物资,遇到圮地则必须要迅速通过,陷入围地就要设计脱险,置于死地就要力战求生。
Therefore:
when entering "sandi", it is not suitable to fight;
when entering "qingdi" , we should not stay;
when entering "zhengdi", it is not suitable to attack;
When entering "Jiaodi", it is necessary to ensure that the teams can coordinate with each other without being cut off;
When entering "Qudi", we should take the initiative to make friends with princes;
When entering "zhongdi",  we seizes military supplies from enemy;
when entering "pidi", we must pass through quickly;
when entering "weidi", we have to design to escape;
when entering "sidi", we have to fight for survival.

所谓古之善用兵者,能使敌人前后不相及,众寡不相恃,贵贱不相救,上下不相收,卒离而不集,兵合而不齐。
从古到今好的指挥官,总能让敌人的部队前后不能相互策应,人员调配不能平衡,主力部队和非主力部队不能互助,上下级的想法不能一直,士兵溃散而不能聚合,即使集合在一起也不能统一行动。
From ancient times to the present, good commanders have always prevented the enemy's forces from cooperating with each other, (enemy) the deployment of personnel could not be balanced, (enemy) the main force and the non main force could not help each other, (enemy) the ideas of the superior and the subordinate could not be consistent, and the soldiers could not unite even if they were gathered together.

-----------------------------------------------------------

合于利而动,不合于利而止。
(敌我状况)于我有利就战,于我不利就不战。
(the situation of the enemy and ourselves) if it is favorable to us, we will fight if it is unfavorable to us.

敢问:“敌众整而将来,待之若何?”曰:“先夺其所爱,则听矣。”
或许有人会问:“如果敌军众多且又阵势严整前来进攻,该如何应付呢?”答案是:“先夺取敌人所必救的要害之处,这样敌人就不得不听任我们的摆布了。”
Some people may ask, "what should we do if there are a large number of enemy troops and their formation is well formed to attack?" The answer is: "take the key points that the enemy must save first, so that the enemy will have to be at our disposal."

兵之情主速,乘人之不及,由不虞之道,攻其所不戒也。
用兵作战的原则贵在神速,要乘敌人措手不及的时机,从敌人意想不到的道路,攻击敌人防备虚懈的地方。
The principle of fighting with troops is speed. We should take advantage of the enemy's unprepared opportunity to attack places where the enemy's defenses are weak from unexpected paths.

凡为客之道,深入则专,主人不克。
进入敌国境内作战的一般规律是:越深入敌国腹地,我军军心就要越坚固,敌人就越难战胜我们。
The general rule of operations in enemy territory is: the deeper we go into the enemy's hinterland, we should more focus and more trust ourselves, and the more difficult it will be for the enemy to defeat us.

掠于饶野,三军足食;谨养而勿劳,并气积力。
合理地从使用敌人过度的优势来补充自己,让自己的精力一直处于上升阶段。
Reasonable from the use of the enemy's excessive advantage to supplement themselves, so that their energy has been in the rising stage.

运兵计谋,为不可测。
合理使用计谋,掩盖我军的虚实和意图。
We should make rational use of tactics to cover up our army's false and real intentions.

投之无所往,死且不北。死焉不得士人尽力。
当部队在无它选择的情况下,必将死战不退,如果士兵都不畏惧死亡,那还有什么可怕的呢?
If the soldiers are not afraid of death, what is the fear?

-----------------------------------------------------------

兵士甚陷则不惧,无所往则固,深入则拘,不得已则斗。
这样当士卒真正深陷绝境时,就会无所畏惧;无路可走,军心反而会更加稳固;越是深入敌境,部队的凝聚力就越强;迫不得已时,将士们就会殊死战斗到底。
In this way, when the soldiers are really in a desperate situation, they will have no fear; when they have no way to go, their morale will be more stable; the deeper they go into the enemy's territory, the stronger the cohesion of the troops; when they have to, they will fight to the end.

是故其兵不修而戒,不求而得,不约而亲,不令而信。
在这种情况下,军队不用整治也会加强戒备,不用鼓励也能积极完成任务,不用约束也能亲密团结,不需要三令五申也能遵守法令。
Under such circumstances, the armed forces will strengthen their vigilance without rectification, actively complete their tasks without encouragement, unite closely without restraint, and abide by laws and regulations without repeated orders.

禁祥去疑,至死无所之。
在军中禁止占卜迷信,要消除部属的疑虑,部属就至死也不会逃跑。
In the army, superstition in divination is forbidden. To dispel the doubts of subordinates, they will not escape until their death.

吾士无余财,非恶货也;无余命,非恶寿也。
士卒们不留多余的财物,并非他们不爱财物;士卒们将生死置之度外,并不是他们不想活命。
The soldiers did not leave any extra property that is not why they don't love property.The soldiers were brave and fearless, It's not that they don't want to live.

令发之日,士卒坐者涕沾襟,偃卧者涕交颐,投之无所往者,诸、刿之勇也。
作战命令下达时,所有士兵都情绪激昂,向着唯一的方向奋斗,就像专诸、曹刿一样勇敢了。
When the battle order was given, all the soldiers were in high in morale, fighting in the only direction, just like Zhuangzu and Cao GUI.

故善用兵者,譬如率然。率然者,常山之蛇也。
善于指挥作战的人,能使部队自我策应如同“率然”蛇一样。率然是生活在恒山的一种灵蛇。
A man who is good at commanding operations can make the troops respond to themselves like a "straightforward" snake. Frankness is a kind of snake living in Hengshan.

击其首则尾至,击其尾则首至,击其中则首尾俱至。
这种蛇,打它的头,尾巴就会来救应;打它的尾巴,头就会来救应;打它的腹部,头尾都会来救应。
This snake, hit its head, tail will come to rescue; hit its tail, head will rescue; hit its abdomen, head and tail will come to rescue.

-----------------------------------------------------------
9/14 九地
敢问:“兵可使如率然乎?”曰:“可。”
如果问:“部队行进能像率然蛇一样吗?”我想是可以的。
If you ask, "can the army march like a frank snake?" I think it can.

夫吴人与越人相恶也,当其同舟济而遇风,其相救也如左右手。
吴国人和越国人原本相互仇恨,但当他们同船渡河而遇上大风时,他们相互救援,就如同人的左右手一样自然熟练。
Wu people and Yue people originally hate each other, but when they cross the river with a boat and encounter a strong wind, they rescue each other, just like the right and left hands of the same person.

是故方马埋轮,未足恃也;齐勇若一,政之道也;刚柔皆得,地之理也。
因此,想用缚住马缰、深埋车轮这种显示死战决心的办法来稳定部队,是靠不住的。要使全军上下齐心协力、勇敢如一人,靠的是统兵治军有方。要让部队合理进退,靠的是对所在地的客观条件判断。
Therefore, it is unreliable to stabilize the troops by means of binding the horse's reins and burying the wheels to show the determination to fight the death. To make the whole army work together and be brave as one person, it depends on the unity of troops and the ability to manage the army. To make the troops advance and retreat reasonably depends on the objective conditions of the place where they are located.

故善用兵者,携手若使一人,不得已也。
善于用兵作战的人,能使全军上下携手团结如同一人一样服从指挥,这是由于客观形势迫使部队不得不如此。
Those who are good at fighting can make the whole army unite hand in hand and obey the command as one person. This is because the objective situation forces the army to do so.

将军之事,静以幽,正以治。
作为统帅,要低调而保持战术隐蔽性,也要公证严明保持治理有条不紊。
As a commander-in-chief, he should keep a low-key and keep the tactical concealment. He should also be impartial and strict, and maintain an orderly management.

能愚士卒之耳目,使之无知;易其事,革其谋,使人无识;易其居,迂其途,使人不得虑。
可以让作战部署不会从自己部队泄露出去;随时准备改变部署的谋划,掩盖战术战略意图;宿营简易,行进迂回,让自己部队有安全感。
It can ensure that the operational deployment will not leak out from its own troops; it can be ready to change the deployment plan at any time to cover up the tactical and strategic intention; it can make the camp simple and circuitous, so that the troops can have a sense of security.

帅与之期,如登高而去其梯,帅与之深入诸侯之地,而发其机,焚舟破釜。
将帅对部队的部署,就是让士兵一往无前不计退路,哪怕是身处险地,也要像发射出去的箭一样,在最佳时机中一击必杀。
The general's deployment of the troops is to let the soldiers go forward without hesitation. Even if they are in danger, they should be like the arrows launched out, and they must fight at the best opportunity.

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若驱群羊,驱而往,驱而来,莫知所之。
指挥士卒要像驱赶羊群一样,赶过来,驱过去,没有义务让他们知道究竟要到哪里去。
Commanding officers and soldiers should be like driving sheep to come and drive them. they have no obligation to let soldiers know where they are going.

聚三军之众,投之于险,此谓将军之事也。
集结全军要把他们置于险境,迫使全军拼死奋战,这是统帅的职责。
It is the commander-in-chief's duty to gather the whole army to put them in danger and force the whole army to fight to the death.

九地之变,屈伸之利,人情之理,不可不察也。
这是统帅的职责。各种地形的灵活运用,攻守进退的利害关系,士卒在不同环境中的心理变化规律,这些都是将帅必须认真考察研究的问题。
The duty of the commander is to flexible use of various terrain, decide whe and where to offensive or defensive, advance or retreat. To know the law of psychological change of soldiers in different environments. And to study all these problems.

凡为客之道,深则专,浅则散。
在敌国境内作战时的规律是:进入敌境越深,军队就越要集中在一处。
When fighting in enemy territory, the rule is: the deeper the enemy enters, the more concentrated the troops will be.

去国越境而师者,绝地也;四通者,衢地也;
进入敌境作战的地域称为绝地;四通八达的地域叫作衢地;
Fighting in enemy controlled areas is called "Juedi" operations,the area extending in all directions is called Quedi

入深者,重地也;入浅者,轻地也;
深入敌境后方的叫作重地;进入敌境不远的叫作轻地;
The rear of the enemy controlled area is called Zhongdi,the place not far from the enemy controlled area is called Qingdi

背固前隘者,围地也;无所往者,死地也。
背有险阻前有隘路的地域叫围地;无路可走的地域叫死地。
Weidi is the area which has the dangerous behind and block in front, Sidi is the area no way to escape.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

是故散地,吾将一其志;轻地,吾将使之属;
争地,吾将趋其后;
交地,吾将谨其守;
衢地,吾将固其结;
重地,吾将继其食;
圮地,吾将进其途;
围地,吾将塞其阙;
死地,吾将示之以不活。

因此,作战时在散地要统一军队意志;
在轻地要使营阵紧密相连;
进争地要使后续部队迅速跟进;
过交地要谨慎防守;
在衢地要巩固与列国的结盟;
入重地要保障军需供应;
经圮地必须迅速通过;
陷入围地就要堵塞缺口;
到了死地就要显示死战的决心。

Therefore, we should unify the will of the army in the scattered areas during the war;
When entering the Qingdi, the battalions should be closely linked;
When entering the Zhengdi, the follow-up troops should follow up quickly;
When entering the Jiaodi, we should guard carefully ;
When entering the Qudi, we should consolidate our alliance with other countries;
When entering the zhongdi,The supply of military supplies should be guaranteed;
When entering the Jidi, we shoule pass as soon as possible;
When entering the Weidi, you have to plug the gap;
When entering the Sidi, you have to show your determination to fight.


故兵之情:围则御,不得已则斗,过则从。

所以,士卒的心理变化规律是:
被包围就会合力抵御,
不得已时就会殊死奋战,
陷于深重危难境地就会非常听从指挥。

Therefore, the law of psychological change of soldiers is as follows:
When surrounded, they will work together to resist,
When we have to, they will fight to the death,
If they're in a serious situation, they'll be very obedient.


是故不知诸侯之谋者,不能预交;
不知山林、险阻、沮泽之形者,不能行军;
不用乡导者,不能得地利。

因此,不了解列国诸侯的战略企图,就不能与之结交;
不熟悉山林、险阻、沼泽等地形情况,就不能行军作战;
不用当地人做向导,就不能得到地形之利。

Therefore, we only make friends with the various princes if knowing their strategic intentions;
If you are not familiar with the terrain conditions such as mountains, forests, dangerous obstacles and swamps, you cannot March;
Without the guidance of local people, we can not get the benefit of the terrain.

四五者,不知一,非霸、王之兵也。
这些情况,如果有一项不了解,都不能算争王称霸的军队。
If one of these situations is not understood, it can not be regarded as an army fighting for hegemony.

夫霸、王之兵,伐大国,则其众不得聚;威加于敌,则其交不得合。
真正强大的军队,进攻大国,
行军迅猛得使敌国无法及时调动民众与集结军队;
向敌人施以兵威,能使其盟国不能与之配合策应。
A truly powerful army, when it comes to war against a powerful country.
Must use the fastest speed, so that the enemy can not gather in a limited time.
At the same time, through the use of their own strong influence, so that the enemy's allies can not cooperate with it

是故不争天下之交,不养天下之权,信己之私,威加于敌,故其城可拔,其国可隳。
因此,没有必要去争着同天下诸侯结交,也用不着在各诸侯国里培植自己的势力,只要能施展自己的战略意图,把兵威施加在敌人头上,就可以拔取敌人的城邑,摧毁敌人的国都。
Therefore, there is no need to strive for friendship with the princes in the world, and there is no need to cultivate one's own power in the vassal states. As long as we can display our strategic intention and impose military authority on the enemy, we can take out the enemy's cities and destroy the enemy's capital.

施无法之赏,悬无政之令。
施行破格的奖赏,颁布打破常规的号令.
Give rewards and give orders to break the rules

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犯三军之众,若使一人。
指挥全军上下就能如同指挥一个人一样。
Commanding the whole army is like commanding a soldier.

犯之以事,勿告以言;犯之以利,勿告以害。
向部属布置作战任务,不要向他们说明意图;只告诉他们有利的条件,不必指出不利因素。
When assigning combat tasks to subordinates, do not explain the intention to them; only tell them the favorable conditions without pointing out the unfavorable factors.

投之亡地然后存,陷之死地然后生。
把士卒置于危亡境地,才有可能转危为安;使士卒陷入死地,才有可能起死回生。
Only when the soldiers are placed in a dangerous situation can they turn the crisis into safety. if they fall into a Sidi , they can be brought back to life.

夫众陷于害,然后能为胜败。
只有使士卒深陷绝境时,才可能转败为胜。
Only when the soldiers are in a desperate situation can they turn defeat into victory.

故为兵之事,在于顺详敌之意,并敌一向,千里杀将,此谓巧能成事者也。
所以,指挥作战的关键,在于摸清敌人的意图,迷惑敌人,然后集中精锐兵力攻击敌人的要害,这样即使奔袭千里也可斩杀敌将,这便是通常说的机智能成就大事。
Therefore, the key to commanding operations is to find out the enemy's intention, confuse the enemy, and then concentrate the elite forces to attack the enemy's vital points. In this way, the enemy general can be killed even if he rushes far. This is what is usually said to be a great achievement of the plan and operation.

是故政举之日,夷关折符,无通其使;厉于廊庙之上,以诛其事。
因此,在决定战争方略的时候,就要封锁关口,废除通行符证,停止与敌国使节往来;朝廷要反复计议考虑战争计划。
Therefore, when deciding on the war strategy, it is necessary to block the pass and stop communicating with the envoys of the enemy countries; the court should think over and consider the war plan repeatedly.

敌人开阖,必亟入之。
一旦敌人出现可乘之机,就要迅速乘机攻取。
Once the enemy has an opportunity to take advantage of it, he must take advantage of it quickly.

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先其所爱,微与之期。
首先夺取敌人最重要的战略要地,但不要轻易与敌约期决战。
First of all, we should seize the most important strategic areas of the enemy, but we should not easily make a decisive battle with the enemy.

践墨随敌,以决战事。
要灵活机动,依敌情来决定自己的作战计划和行动。
We should be flexible and flexible, and decide our own operational plans and actions according to the enemy's situation.

是故始如处女,敌人开户;后如脱兔,敌不及拒。
因此,在战前要不露声色,诱使敌人放松警惕,门户大开;一旦开战则要迅速异常,使敌人措手不及,无从抵抗。
Therefore, before the war, we should keep quiet and induce the enemy to relax their vigilance and open the door to the outside world. Once a war starts, we should be quick and abnormal, so that the enemy can not resist.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 21:56:43 | 显示全部楼层
第十二篇 火攻

孙子曰:凡火攻有五:一曰火人,二曰火积,三曰火辎,四曰火库,五曰火队。行火必有因,烟火必素具。发火有时,起火有日。时者,天之燥也;日者,月在箕、壁、翼、轸也。凡此四宿者,风起之日也。

凡火攻,必因五火之变而应之。火发于内,则早应之于外;火发而其兵静者,待而勿攻。极其火力,可从而从之,不可从而止。火可发于外,无待于内,以时发之。火发上风,无攻下风。昼风久,夜风止。凡军必知五火之变,以数守之。

故以火佐攻者明,以水佐攻者强。水可以绝,不可以夺。夫战胜攻取,而不修其功者,凶,命曰费留。故曰:明主虑之,良将修之。非利不动,非得不用,非危不战。主不可以怒而兴师,将不可以愠而致战;合于利而动,不合于利而止。怒可以复喜,愠可以复悦;亡国不可以复存,死者不可以复生。故明君慎之,良将警之,此安国全军之道也。

火攻

孙子曰:凡火攻有五:一曰火人,二曰火积,三曰火辎,四曰火库,五曰火队。
孙子说:火攻的作战方式共有五种,一是火烧敌军的人马,二是焚烧敌军的粮草,三是焚烧敌军辎重物资,四是焚烧敌军兵器库,五是火烧敌军的粮道和运输设施。
Sun Tzu said: there are five ways of fire attack: first, to burn the enemy's army; second, to burn the enemy's food; third, to burn the enemy's supplies and materials; fourth, to burn the enemy's arsenal; fifth, to burn the enemy's food channels and transportation facilities.

行火必有因,烟火必素具。
实施火攻必须具备一定的条件,火攻的器材必须事先准备就绪。
Fire attack must have certain conditions and equipment must be ready in advance.

发火有时,起火有日。
放火要看准天时,选好有利的日子。
When setting fire, it is necessary to choose the favorable day.

时者,天之燥也;日者,月在箕、壁、翼、轸也。
天时是指气候要干燥,日子是指要在月亮行经“箕”“壁”“翼”“轸”四个星宿位置的。
The time of day means that the climate should be dry, and the day is when the moon passes through the four constellations of "Ji", "Bi", "Yi" and "Fu".

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凡此四宿者,风起之日也。
凡是月亮行经这四个星宿的时候,就是起风的日子。
When the moon passes through these four groups of stars, it is the windy day.

凡火攻,必因五火之变而应之。
凡是用火攻敌,都必须根据以上五种情况所引起的情况变化灵活部署兵力策应。
When attacking the enemy with fire, we must flexibly deploy our forces in accordance with the changes caused by the above five situations.

火发于内,则早应之于外;火发而其兵静者,待而勿攻。
如果从敌营内部放火,就应该及早派兵在外策应。如果敌营内已经起火,但敌军仍然保持镇静的,就要耐心等待,不要急于进攻;
If the fire is set off from inside the enemy camp, troops should be sent out as soon as possible. If there is a fire in the enemy's camp, but the enemy is still calm, we must wait patiently and do not rush to attack;

极其火力,可从而从之,不可从而止。
等到火势旺盛后,再根据具体情况作出决策,可以进攻就发起进攻,不可以进攻就停止
When the fire is strong, make a decision according to the specific situation. If you can attack, you can attack; if you can't, you can stop

火可发于外,无待于内,以时发之。
也可以从敌营外部放火,这样就不必等待内应,只要时机适合就可以放火攻击。
It is also possible to set fire from the outside of the enemy camp, so that there is no need to wait for the inside. As long as the time is right, the fire can be set on fire.

火发上风,无攻下风。
从上风放火时,不可从下风向进攻。
Attacking with fire must do in the downwind, but never to set in the upwind.

昼风久,夜风止。
白天风刮久了,到夜晚就容易停止。(意思是要明确知道风起息)
The wind blows for a long time in the daytime, and it stops easily at night. (it means to know the wind rise and fall clearly)

===============================================

凡军必知五火之变,以数守之。
凡是用火攻敌,都必须根据以上五种情况所引起的情况变化灵活部署兵力策应。
When attacking the enemy with fire, we must flexibly deploy our forces in accordance with the changes caused by the above five situations.

故以火佐攻者明,以水佐攻者强。
所以用火辅助攻击敌情已经明确的敌军,用水辅助攻击势大的敌军,都有明显效果。
Therefore, the use of fire to assist the attack of the enemy with a clear situation of the enemy and the use of water to assist the attack of the enemy with great potential will have obvious effects.

水可以绝,不可以夺。
水攻能使敌军受困,但造成实质性消耗可能不大。
Water attack can trap the enemy, but it may not cause substantial consumption for the enemy.

夫战胜攻取,而不修其功者,凶,命曰费留。
如果只追求胜利,不考虑功德,是非常凶险的,会折寿。
If you only pursue victory without considering merit and virtue, it is very dangerous and will lose your life.

故曰:明主虑之,良将修之。
所以:英明的国君应该慎重考虑这个问题,贤良的将帅要认真对待这个问题。
Therefore: a wise monarch should carefully consider this issue, and a good general should take it seriously.

非利不动,非得不用,非危不战。
于国没有好处不要行动,没有取胜的把握不能用兵,不到万不得已绝不开战。
If the country has no advantage, do not act; if you are not sure of victory, you cannot use troops; if you have any other way, you will never go to war.

主不可以怒而兴师,将不可以愠而致战;合于利而动,不合于利而止。
国君不能因为一时的愤怒就发动战争,将帅不能因为一时的气愤就贸然下令出战。符合国家长远利益才可以用兵,不符合国家长远利益就停止用兵。
A monarch can't start a war because of a moment's anger, and a general can't rashly order a war because of a moment's anger. Only when it is in line with the country's long-term interests can it be used; if it is not in line with the country's long-term interests, it should be stopped.

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怒可以复喜,愠可以复悦;亡国不可以复存,死者不可以复生。
愤怒可以重新转化为喜悦,气愤也可以重新转化为高兴,但是,国家灭亡了就不能复存,人死更不能再生。
Anger can be re transformed into joy, anger can also be transformed into happiness. However, when a country is destroyed, it can not survive, and people can't be reborn after death.

故明君慎之,良将警之,此安国全军之道也。
因此,英明的国君要慎重对待战争,贤良的将帅应该小心警惕贸然作战,这都是安定国家保全军队的根本原则!
Therefore, a wise monarch should be cautious about war, and a good general should be careful to fight rashly. These are the fundamental principles for stabilizing the country and preserving the army!
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 22:00:48 | 显示全部楼层
第十三篇 用间

孙子曰:凡兴师十万,出征千里,百姓之费,公家之奉,日费千金。内外骚动,怠于道路,不得操事者,七十万家。相守数年,以争一日之胜。而爱爵禄百金,不知敌之情者,不仁之至也,非人之将也,非主之佐也,非胜之主也。故明君贤将,所以动而胜人,成功出于众者,先知也。先知者,不可取于鬼神,不可象于事,不可验于度,必取于人,知敌之情者也。

故用间有五:有因间,有内间,有反间,有死间,有生间。五间俱起,莫知其道,是谓神纪,人君之宝也。因间者,因其乡人而用之;内间者,因其官人而用之;反间者,因其敌间而用之;死间者,为诳事于外,令吾间知之,而传于敌间也;生间者,反报也。

故三军之事,莫亲于间,赏莫厚于间,事莫密于间。非圣智不能用间,非仁义不能使间,非微妙不能得间之实。微哉!微哉!无所不用间也。间事未发,而先闻者,间与所告者皆死。

凡军之所欲击,城之所欲攻,人之所欲杀,必先知其守将、左右、谒者、门者、舍人之姓名,令吾间必索知之。必索敌间之间来间我者,因而利之,导而舍之,故反间可得而用也;因是而知之,故乡间、内间可得而使也;因是而知之,故死间为诳事,可使告敌;因是而知之,故生间可使如期。五间之事,主必知之,知之必在于反间,故反间不可不厚也。

昔殷之兴也,伊挚在夏;周之兴也,吕牙在殷。故惟明君贤将,能以上智为间者,必成大功。此兵之要,三军之所恃而动也。

用间

孙子曰:凡兴师十万,出征千里,百姓之费,公家之奉,日费千金。
孙子说:大凡兴兵十万,出征千里,百姓的耗费,国家的开支,每天至少耗资千金;
Sun Tzu said: when a large number of soldiers are set up to fight for thousands of miles, the expenditure of the people and the state will cost much money every day;

内外骚动,怠于道路,不得操事者,七十万家。
国家内外动荡,民夫兵卒因往来奔波而疲惫不堪,不能安心从事耕作的人多达七十万家。
The country is in turmoil both at home and abroad, and the soldiers and civilians are exhausted because of the rush and rush, and it makes that there are much more people who can not rest assured to engage in farming.

相守数年,以争一日之胜。
这样相持多年就是为了争求有朝一日的胜利。
This stalemate for many years is to fight for victory one day.

而爱爵禄百金,不知敌之情者,不仁之至也,非人之将也,非主之佐也,非胜之主也。
如果最后却因吝惜爵禄和金钱,不肯用来重用间谍,以致不能掌握敌情而失败,那就是不仁到极点啊。这样的人不配做军队的统帅,不配做国君的辅臣,也不可能取得最后的胜利。
If, at the end of the day, he is reluctant to use his rank and money for using an important spy. And make himself dis-understanding the enemy's situation and fail, then he will be unwise to the extreme.Such a person is not qualified to be the commander-in-chief of the army or the Assistant Minister of the monarch, and can not win the final victory.

故明君贤将,所以动而胜人,成功出于众者,先知也。
英明的国君、贤能的将帅,之所以动辄就能战胜敌人,功业超越众人,就在于用兵作战之前便掌握了敌情。
The reason why a wise monarch and a wise general can easily defeat the enemy and surpass the others lies in the fact that they have mastered the enemy's situation before they fight.

===================================================================================

先知者,不可取于鬼神,不可象于事,不可验于度,必取于人,知敌之情者也。
要事先了解敌情,决不能乞求鬼神的启示,也不能用相似的例子作类比推测,更不能从日月星辰运行的数理去验证,而只能从那些真正熟悉敌情的人那里去获取。
In order to understand the enemy's situation in advance, we should never ask for the Enlightenment of ghosts and gods, nor can we use similar examples for analogy and speculation, let alone verify it from practice divination, but only from those who are really familiar with the enemy's situation.

故用间有五:有因间,有内间,有反间,有死间,有生间。
间谍的运用方式有“因间”“内间”“反间”“死间”“生间”五种。
There are five ways of using spies, which are "inter related", "internal", "anti", "dead" and "living".

五间俱起,莫知其道,是谓神纪,人君之宝也。
五种间谍一齐使用,使敌人无从捉摸我用间的规律,这就是使用间谍神妙莫测的方法,也正是国君克敌制胜的法宝。
The use of five kinds of spies together makes it impossible for the enemy to grasp the law of our use. This is the mysterious method of using spies, and it is also the magic weapon of the monarch to overcome the enemy.

因间者,因其乡人而用之;
所谓“因间”,是利用敌国居民中的普通人做间谍;
The so-called "Yin Jian" refers to the use of ordinary people in enemy countries as spies;

内间者,因其官人而用之;
所谓“内间”,是指利用敌方的官员做我方的间谍;
The so-called "interior" refers to the use of enemy officials as our spies;

反间者,因其敌间而用之;
所谓“反间”,就是利用敌方派来的间谍,使之反过来为我效力;
The so-called "villain" is to use the spies sent by the enemy to make them work for us in turn;

死间者,为诳事于外,令吾间知之,而传于敌间也;
所谓“死间”,是指制造散布虚假情报,通过我方间谍将假情报传给敌间,诱使敌人上当。但事情一旦败露,这类间谍难免一死而被称为死间;
The so-called "dead time" refers to the creation and dissemination of false information, which is transmitted to the enemy through our spies, so as to induce the enemy to be deceived. But once the matter is revealed, such spies will inevitably die, which is called "dead time";

===================================================================================

生间者,反报也。
所谓“生间”,是指能亲自活着回来报告敌情的间谍。
The so-called "shengjian" refers to spies who can come back alive to report the enemy's situation.

故三军之事,莫亲于间,赏莫厚于间,事莫密于间。
因此,对于统领三军、用兵打仗的国君和主将来说,三军之中没有比间谍更值得信赖的人了,军中的奖赏没有比奖赏间谍更优厚的了,军中的机密也没有比使用间谍更为机密的了。
Therefore, for the monarchs and generals who are in charge of the three armies and who fight with soldiers, there is no one in the three armies who is more trustworthy than spies. There is no reward in the army that is more generous than rewarding spies, and there is no more confidential military secret than using spies.

非圣智不能用间,非仁义不能使间,非微妙不能得间之实。
不是英明睿智的人不能任用间谍,不是仁义的人不能驱使间谍,不是谋虑精细的人不能分析判断间谍提供的情报真实性。
Those who are not wise and wise can not employ spies, those who are not benevolent and righteous can not drive spies, and those who are not careful in thinking can not analyze and judge the authenticity of the intelligence provided by spies.

微哉!微哉!无所不用间也。
若任何细节都能控制恰到好处,那么在作战过程中无时无处不可以使用间谍。
If any details can be controlled properly, spies can be used everywhere in the course of combat.

间事未发,而先闻者,间与所告者皆死。
如果间谍工作还没有进行就泄露了用间的消息,那么,间谍和了解内情的人都要被处死。
If the spy work has not been carried out before the leakage of information, then, spies and people who know the inside information will be executed.

凡军之所欲击,城之所欲攻,人之所欲杀,必先知其守将、左右、谒者、门者、舍人之姓名,令吾间必索知之。
凡是要攻打敌军,要攻占敌方城邑,要刺杀敌方某人,都必须预先了解敌方的守将、左右亲信、传达报告的官员、守门的官吏以及门客幕僚诸人的相关情报,而想要知道这一切就要指令我方间谍去侦察清楚。
If you want to attack the enemy, capture the enemy's cities and towns, or assassinate the enemy, you must know in advance the relevant information of the enemy's general, his or her cronies, the officials who convey the report, the officials who guard the door, the officials who guard the door, and the family members and staff. If you want to know all these, you must instruct our spies to investigate clearly.

必索敌间之间来间我者,因而利之,导而舍之,故反间可得而用也;
对于敌人派来的刺探我方情报的敌方间谍,也必须把他们搜查出来,之后再用优厚的待遇和金钱来收买他们,对他们进行引诱开导,再放他们回去,这样就可以使他们成为反间,为我所用了。
The enemy spies sent by the enemy who spy our intelligence must also search them out, and then use the preferential treatment and money to buy them, lure them and guide them, and then let them go back, so that they can become counter and useful for me.

=======================================================================

因是而知之,故乡间、内间可得而使也;
通过反间了解敌情,就能培植、利用因间和内间了;
for understanding the enemy's situation, we can cultivate and make use of the enemy's people and their insider;

因是而知之,故死间为诳事,可使告敌;
同样,根据反间提供的情报,就能让死间传播假情报给敌人了;
In the same way, according to the intelligence provided by the enemy, we can let the spy false information to the enemy;

因是而知之,故生间可使如期。
由于从反间那里了解了敌情,避开了危险,生间也就可如期回报。
Since we have learned the enemy's situation from the enemy and avoided the danger, that our spy can return as scheduled

五间之事,主必知之,知之必在于反间,故反间不可不厚也。
这五种间谍的情况,君主都必须了解掌握,而了解情况的关键在于利用反间,所以对反间不可不给予优厚待遇。
The monarch must understand and master all these five kinds of spies. The key to understand the situation is to use the anti spies. Therefore, the anti spies must be given preferential treatment

昔殷之兴也,伊挚在夏;周之兴也,吕牙在殷。
以前,殷商的兴起,是因为商汤重用了在夏朝为臣、了解夏朝情况的伊尹;周朝的兴起,是由于周武王重用了了解商朝情况的姜子牙。
In the past, the rise of the Yin and Shang Dynasties was due to the Shang and Tang Dynasty's reuse of Yi Yin, who was an official in Xia Dynasty and understood the situation of Xia Dynasty; the rise of Zhou Dynasty was due to the fact that King Wu of Zhou attached great importance to Jiang Ziya, who understood the situation of Shang Dynasty.

故惟明君贤将,能以上智为间者,必成大功。
因此,明智的君主,贤明的将帅,若能使用很有智谋的人做间谍,一定能取得极大的成功。
Therefore, if a wise monarch, a wise general, can use a very resourceful person as a spy, he will surely achieve great success.

此兵之要,三军之所恃而动也。
这是用兵作战的关键,是军队行动的依靠。
This is the key to military operations and the support of military operations.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 22:01:09 | 显示全部楼层
全文完
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 22:02:19 | 显示全部楼层
凌寒 发表于 2020-11-30 21:11
哈,把《孙子兵法》翻译成英文,耳朵翻得好

多谢姐姐!其实除这个外,以前还翻译过,《大学》和《三十六计》,现在正在做《人间词话》
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-30 22:03:05 | 显示全部楼层

客气了,每天翻译一句,不知不觉就弄完了
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发表于 2020-12-1 06:43:34 | 显示全部楼层
翻译得很好呀
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-1 18:52:14 | 显示全部楼层

you are professional in translation.
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